CONRAD M ARENSBERG, 86, distinguished American anthropologist, died February 10, 1997. Seminal thinker as well as respected practitioner, he was president of both the American Anthropological Association (1980) and Society for Applied Anthropology (1945-46), which he helped found. He saw no gulf between mainstream and applied anthropology, arguing that they are but two facets of a single endeavor with application providing an essential laboratory for testing theories and models generated by the academy.
Born and reared in Pittsburgh, PA, Arensberg completed both his undergraduate (BA summa cum laude, 1931) and graduate studies (PhD, 1934) at Harvard, where he was an active participant in W Lloyd Warner's Yankee City project. He began his teaching career at MIT (1938) and three years later, was appointed associate professor as well as Chair of the department of sociology and anthropology at Brooklyn College. With the advent of World War II, he set aside 4 years of academic life for active service in US Army military intelligence. In 1946, he assumed chairmanship of the Barnard College department of sociology--his first post at Columbia U--and in 1952 moved to the graduate department of anthropology, where he remained until retirement (1979). Admired for his erudition, research, collegiality and, most important, his teaching and mentoring of seemingly countless numbers of graduate students, Arensberg served the department and university with honor and distinction. After his formal retirement as Buttenwieser Professor of Human Relations, he remained active at Columbia as a member of the faculty of the Teachers College Joint Program in Applied Anthropology.
Widely known for his pioneering work on the anthropology of Europe and Old World civilizations, Arensberg authored The Irish Countryman and Family and Community in Ireland (with S T Kimball). During his career, he added many other interests: interaction theory first formulated within the prestigious, interdisciplinary Society of Fellows at Harvard (1934-38); ethnographic study of social behavior, morale and productivity in industrial settings; study of bureaucracies and international development; social change (Introducing Social Change: A Manual for Americans Overseas, with A H Niehoff); community study method (Culture and Community, with S T Kimball); and the study of cultural stabilities in a modernizing India. A multifaceted intellect, he also collaborated with scholars from other disciplines: economist Karl Polanyi on the economies of ancient empires and contemporary market systems (Trade and Markets in the Early Empires); ethnomusicologist Alan Lomax on cantometrics and choreometrics; philosophers of science, physicists and ecologists interested in general systems theory and the integration of science.
Diverse as these interests might appear, for Arensberg they were never conceptually disconnected. Underlying all this work was his understanding of anthropology as a natural science existing in a hierarchy of natural sciences, each with its own focus of observation--that of anthropology being human interaction. It was his strong conviction that culture emerges from regularities in human interactions in the more frequent life events he termed "minimal sequence process modeling." These critical elements of his thought are best detailed in "Culture as Behavior: Structure and Emergence" (1972 Annual Review of Anthropology) and his 1980 AAA presidential address "Cultural Holism through Interactional Systems."
As important as his scholarly and organizational contributions were to anthropology, another dimension of Arensberg should be noted--his unflagging encouragement of students and colleagues to probe the less traditional, less fashionable in the anthropology of the time, to apply the principles of the discipline, to venture across disciplinary boundaries without fearing loss of disciplinary integrity. He urged this at a time most departments were characterized by parochial, Maginot Line mentalities that rarely approved straying from disciplinary nests or encouraged real-life testing of their findings. He was a man ahead of his time.
Arensberg is survived by his wife, Vivian Garrison, also an anthropologist, as well as three children from a previous marriage (Emily, Margaret and Cornelius), and two granddaughters. (Lambros Comitas)

HELEN HAUSE, 81, a long-time member of the staff of the Department of Anthropology at Wayne State U, died May 20, 1995, after a long illness. She was born in Pottstown, Montgomery County, PA in 1914. After graduating from the Philadelphia Music Academy, she taught there as a member of the Piano Theory Faculty. She earned a BA in Anthropology and English from the U of Pennsylvania (1943) and a PhD in African Studies and Linguistics (1947) from the same institution. Her dissertation was titled "Terms for Musical Instruments in the Sudanic Languages: A Lexicographical Inquiry."
Hause taught anthropology at Northwestern before accepting an English professorship at Florida Southern College. She joined the staff of the Department of Sociology and Anthropology at Wayne State U in 1957 and retired from the Department of Anthropology, Associate Professor Emeritus, in 1985, but continued to teach part-time for several years thereafter.
For a two-year period (1963-65) Hause was in charge of an American Friends Service Committee community development team in western Algeria, and was able to accomplish linguistic and ethnomusicological surveys while in the area. The disposition of her field notes is unknown.
Helen Hause is survived by a son, Mark McMasters, and many appreciative students. (Gordon L Grosscup)

WILLIAM R MAPLES, 59, Distinguished Service Professor and Director of the C A Pound Human Identification Laboratory, Department of Anthropology, U Florida, Gainesville, died February 27, 1997, at his home in Gainesville. Born August 7, 1937, in Dallas, TX, Maples was an insurance claims adjuster, ambulance attendant, orderly and emergency room assistant, and worked for a local funeral home to pay for his undergraduate education. He received his MA (1962) and PhD (1967) in anthropology from the U of Texas. After receiving his MA, Maples served as the manager of the Darajani Primate Research Station in Kenya (1962-63), and returned to Texas for a year before leaving for Kenya to direct the Southwest Texas Research Center in Nairobi (1964-66). Maples was an assistant professor at Western Michigan U (1966-68) before moving to the U of Florida (1968), where he spent the remainder of his career.
Throughout the late 1960s and early 1970s, Maples published research focused on taxonomic concerns and adaptive behavior of baboons in Africa. His major interest was classification of the Kenya Papio species. Beginning in the mid-1970s, he returned to his first love, forensic anthropology, and began consulting with Florida medical examiners on a part-time basis; by the mid-1980s he was working on more than a dozen cases a year. During the 1980s, Maples began a relationship with the US Army Central Identification Laboratory providing oversight, expertise and consultation on cases involving military personnel missing or killed in action during the conflict in Southeast Asia. Maples provided expert opinion and congressional testimony on three occasions which helped shape the reformation and professional mission of that laboratory. In addition to his work with Florida medical examiners, Maples was a forensic consultant to the New York State Police Forensic Sciences Unit. Together with Bill Goza, a colleague at the Florida Museum of Natural History, Maples convinced a local Gainesville resident and U Florida benefactor C Addison Pound to help fund a human identification laboratory at the university. The C A Pound Human Identification Laboratory opened in 1986 as part of the Florida Museum of Natural History. Four years later, Maples designed and helped raise funds for a separate facility which opened in 1990. In 1991, the laboratory received 114 separate forensic anthropology cases for analysis.
A pioneer in the field of forensic anthropology, Maples was internationally respected for his rigorous analysis of human skeletal material, from the bones of the victim of an unsolved homicide in rural Florida to the remains of President Zachary Taylor, Francisco Pizarro and Joseph Merrick--the Elephant Man. In 1992, he supervised a team of forensic scientists to identify remains of the last Russian monarch, Czar Nicholas II, and his family, who were reportedly slain by revolutionaries in 1918. Most recently, Maples assisted medical examiners in Dade County, FL, identify the remains of victims of the ValuJet airline crash.
William Maples was a Fellow of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences and on the Editorial Board of the Journal of Forensic Sciences. He is survived by his wife of 38 years, Margaret Kelley Maples; two daughters, Lisa Linda Maples and Cynthia Lynn Myers; and 6 grandchildren. (Anthony B Falsetti)

ALSO NOTED: Shyama Charan Dube, 73, one of the pioneer academic anthropologists in India, died at his home in Mayur Vihar, New Delhi, on February 4, 1996. Born July 25, 1922, at Seoni, Central Provinces (Madhya Pradesh), Dube's career included his position as Professor of Anthropology at the U of Saugor (1957-78), Director of Research and Principal at the National Institute of Community Development, Mussoorie and Hyderabad (1960-64) and Director of the Indian Institute of Advanced Study, Simla (1972-77). Reflecting his wide range of interests, Dube's publications in both English and Hindi focused on rural studies, explanation and management of change, public services, social responsibility and secularization in multireligious societies. In addition to a textbook on Indian society for school-leavers published in 7 Indian languages, Dube authored Indian Village (1955) and India's Changing Villages (1958). He is survived by his anthropologist wife, Leela, and two sons. 

CARREL COWAN-RICKS, 51, was born December 1, 1945, in Lansing, MI, and died there January 11, 1997. She earned her BA and MA in anthropology at Wayne State U and was a doctoral candidate in anthropology at the same institution. She had completed her dissertation fieldwork dealing with African American burial customs and cemeteries in South Carolina. But the need for her to work full time, her rapidly declining health and the death of the chair of her dissertation committee (Arnold R Pilling) interfered with the completion of her dissertation. 
At the time of her death, Cowan-Ricks was State Register Coordinator with Michigan's State Historic Preservation office. In prior years she had taught at Wayne State U, U of Toledo and at Clemson U. It was while teaching at Clemson that she was able to accomplish her dissertation research. She had also managed a contract archaeology firm in New Mexico and worked as a project coordinator at Henry Ford Museum and Greenfield Village in Dearborn, MI. 
Cowan-Ricks served on the National Park System Advisory Board, was a member of numerous committees, including the Detroit Historical Museum's Black Historic Sites Committee, and belonged to the Michigan Black History Network, African-American Cemetery Association, Michigan Archaeological Society, Archaeological Society of South Carolina and Association of Black Anthropologists. 
Carrel Cowan-Ricks is survived by her mother, Ella Cowan, and 6 brothers and sisters. (Christine Brown and Gordon Grosscup) 

ALFRED GELL, 51, Reader in Anthropology at the London School of Economics, brilliant scholar and treasured friend of numerous students and colleagues died of cancer January 28, 1997. 
Gell received his BA (1968) from the U of Cambridge and PhD (1973) from the London School of Economics. He worked as a lecturer at the U of Sussex and Australia National U until appointed reader at the London School of Economics in 1979. He avoided being made professor during his entire outstanding career at the LSE because of his dislike for administration. His colleagues eventually prevailed, however, and at the time of his death he was in the process of being promoted to full professorship. In 1974 Gell married Simeran Man Singh, whom he met at the U of Sussex. They have one son. In 1995, Gell was elected the youngest anthropological Fellow of the British Academy. 
Gell was a brilliant and inspirational social anthropologist. His intellectual interests, of an impressive breadth and depth, were reflected in his writings and lectures. These writings include numerous articles, both published and informally distributed (including the delightful "Strathernagrams," in which he gives a remarkable analysis of Gender of the Gift) and 4 books including Metamorphosis of the Cassowaries (1975), The Anthropology of Time (1992), Wrapping in Images (1993) and Art Nexus, a final work that he calmly completed while he knew he was dying. In addition to fieldwork in Melanesia, Gell collaborated with his wife on work among the Muria Gonds of Madhya Pradesh. 
Gell was also a talented artist; indeed, it seemed as though his intellectual thought processes often worked through artistic imagery. At seminars, instead of taking notes he drew images of ever-increasing complexity. After the talk, Gell would stare intently at the drawing, rub his hair vigorously, adjust his glasses and deliver a question or comment of striking originality. It appeared as though these insights developed in some way through the images he drew; not surprisingly, his later work reflects the vital role he grew to understand that art plays in anthropology. 
I was one of a fairly large group of students who had Gell as a supervisor. He could be infuriating: one had to literally hound him for vital letters of recommendation or other administrative requirements; his thesis advice was often more eclectic than practical. Such irritations were minor, however, when compared to what he gave. Alfred Gell was generous with his brilliance, which he combined with warmth, humor and honesty. The illness that killed him began several years ago with a tumor in his eye that forced its removal. When last year he realized he was dying, he finished his book and prepared for death through giving continual support to his family and friends. The courage and equanimity with which he faced life, as well as death, holds a quality of wisdom one rarely sees. (Margaret Willson) 

JOSEPH JABLOW, 82, died quietly at his home in New York City on January 20, 1997, after a battle with multiple sclerosis and pancreatic cancer. 
Born in Brooklyn, NY, on August 20, 1914, Jablow graduated from New York U with the intention of attending medical school. Barred from acceptance in this country by the then-existing religious quotas, he traveled to Britain, where he was accepted at the U of Edinburgh. He did not attend, however, but continued his journey to Russia. During this period of travel he encountered Ruth Benedict, who encouraged him to enter the graduate anthropology program at Columbia. It was there, in his studies with Benedict, Alexander Lesser and Duncan Strong that he absorbed the principles and perspectives of the Boas tradition. His initial area of specialization was archaeology and he worked on digs in Nebraska, North Dakota and Washington, laying the groundwork for his subsequent landmark ethnographies of the Plains Indians. 
Jablow's graduate studies were interrupted by his first marriage and then by World War II, in which he served as an Air Force photoreconnaissance interpreter in the Pacific theater. After his discharge from the military he returned to Columbia, where his work changed focus to ethnohistory, earning his doctorate in 1950. His dissertation, "The Cheyenne in Plains Indians Trade Relations, 1795-1840," became a landmark in that area. Shortly thereafter he joined the faculty of Brooklyn College, CUNY. 
Early in 1951 Jablow was chosen to head the first UNESCO Technical Assistance Mission to sub-Saharan Africa, and he and his second wife and fellow anthropologist, Alta Gusar Jablow, left for Monrovia, Liberia. In Liberia he worked closely with the administration of President William Tubman to establish educational and medical facilities throughout the country. In August 1952, the Jablows returned to the US and their respective positions at Brooklyn College. In the 1960s Jablow was asked to undertake extensive research on a number of land claims being brought before the US Indian Claims Commission. This work resulted in the publication of the ethnohistorical volumes Ponca Indians: Ethnohistory of the Ponca and Indians of Illinois and Indiana: Illinois, Kickapoo and Potawatomi Indians. These works further established Jablow as a meticulous and painstaking researcher with impeccable standards of scholarship but also resulted in his serving as an expert witness in connection with the claims they addressed. 
In addition to chairing the Brooklyn College anthropology department from 1971 until retirement in 1977, Jablow also headed the Office of Pre-professional Counseling, additionally serving as Chief Pre-medical Advisor. This undoubtedly arose out of his own early professional ambitions as well as a tremendous desire to help students in ways extending beyond the classroom. Many students owe their careers to his efforts. As a faculty member and colleague, Jablow was a person of integrity and compassion who cared deeply for his students and coworkers. He deservedly earned the trust and affection of his students and colleagues alike. 
Predeceased by wife Alta Gusar Jablow (1992), Jablow is survived by daughter Lisa Jablow. (Lisa Jablow and Dorothy Hammond) 

MARY LEAKEY, 83, archaeologist and paleoanthropologist, died December 9, 1996, in Nairobi, Kenya. Born Mary Douglas Nicol on February 6, 1913, in London, England, Leakey was drawn to archaeology at an early age. Indeed, she descended from John Frere, the British historian who in 1797 first recognized Stone Age flint implements as primitive tools and weapons. It was while working as an illustrator of stone tools and occasional participant in archaeological digs that she met Louis S B Leakey, a prominent figure in African archaeology at Cambridge U. After their marriage in 1936, the Leakeys set out for East Africa, where they made history with a life time of fossil discoveries that increasingly pushed back the time of human origins. 
Leakey's best known discoveries include: a trail of 3.6-million-year-old hominid footprints in hardened volcanic ash, found in 1978 at Laetoli, on the Serengeti Plain, Northern Tanzania; skull fragments of a 1.75-million year-old hominid, Australopithecus boisei (originally classified as Zinjanthropus), found in 1958 at the Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania; and the skull of Proconsul africanus, an ape-human ancestor who lived 25 million years ago on the island of Rusinga in Lake Victoria, found in 1947. 
Leakey spent most of her life in the field, searching for the tiniest fragments that might shed light on human origins and behavior. By the mid-1960s the Leakeys had established camp at Olduvai Gorge. It was here that she focused her attention while he stayed mainly in Nairobi and traveled widely lecturing and raising money. A retiring personality who often worked in her husband's shadow, Leakey earned a reputation for dedicated and meticulous work and is credited with setting the standards for documentation and excavation in Paleolithic archaeology. She spent time at Olduvai studying the fossils she collected, meticulously drawing them in a hot tin shed for publication. In the evenings she loved a good glass of bourbon and a cigar. 
In addition to her interest in fossils, Leakey recorded some 1600 prehistoric rock paintings. She agreed to write her autobiography on condition that a book on rock art from the Kandoa-Irangi region, Tanzania, also be published. Her publications include Olduvai Gorge: My Search for Early Man (1979), Africa's Vanishing Art: The Rock Paintings of Tanzania (1983) and Disclosing the Past (1984). 
After Louis Leakey's death in 1972, Mary Leakey assumed direction of the family fossil enterprise, joined by their son Richard. She retired from fieldwork in 1983. Leakey's honors were many for one who never finished secondary school: medals from the National Geographic Society, Geological Society of London and Royal Swedish Academy and honorary degrees from universities around the world, including Cambridge. In 1995 she was awarded the Mary Leakey Lifetime Achievement Award by the L S B Leakey Foundation in recognition of her contributions to paleoanthropology. Following her death, the foundation established the Mary Leakey Fund for African Archaeology to benefit scientists pursuing similar interests. 
Mary Leakey is survived by sons Jonathan, Richard and Philip and 10 grandchildren. Her legacy is carried on by numerous colleagues, including Richard's wife, Maeve, who continues in the field. (Based on obituaries in the New York Times and Washington Post) 

DARCY RIBEIRO, 75, died on February 17, 1997, in consequence of bone cancer. The President of Brazil, Fernando Henrique Cardoso, declared a three-day mourning period in his honor. Born October 26, 1922, Ribeiro was Emeritus Professor of Anthropology at the U of Rio de Janeiro and held doctor honoris causa from the universities of Sorbonne, Copenhagen, Venezuela, Uruguay and Brasilia. He was a senator representing the state of Rio and a member of the Brazilian Academy of Letters. 
An anthropologist at heart, throughout his life Ribeiro was also involved with education, literature and politics. He graduated in anthropology (1946) from the Faculty of Sociology and Political Science, in Sao Paulo. Between 1947 and 1956 he worked in the Brazilian Indian Protection Service agency, spending many months studying the Kadiweu, Guarani, Oti-Xavante, Bororo and Urubu-Kaapor Indians. He founded the Museum of the Indian (in Rio de Janeiro) and elaborated the project that established the Xingu Indian National Park, today one of Brazil's largest Indian territories. Ribeiro's book on the mythology and art of the Kadiweu, which includes some 500 original Kadiweu drawings, is considered his most important book of that period. His article on the real story of a Kaapor Indian who leaves his tribe in search of Maira, the tribe's culture hero, and ends up jumping to his death in a river full of piranhas was made into a regular circuit film called Uira Goes in Search of Maira. His latest book, Diarios Indios (1996), is a free-flowing account of his field trips to the Kaapor Indians in 1949 and 1951. Under the title Anthropology of Civilization Ribeiro published 5 volumes (1968-95), including an appraisal of the situation of Brazilian Indians in this century, a theoretical, Marxist-oriented view of social evolution, a sociological overview of Latin America and two books on Brazil's unique culture and why it has not developed to become a fully independent nation. These books have been translated into several major languages, but only The Americas and Civilization and The Civilizational Process are available in English. Ribeiro wrote 4 novels, of which the most acclaimed is Maira, which he considered not only his best financial work but also a bona fide piece of anthropology written in a personalized, novelesque style. 
As a politician, Ribeiro was minister of education and house chief-of-staff in president Goulart's left-leaning administration (1961-64). On his return from exile he was elected vice-governor of the state of Rio and became secretary of culture and education for two terms of office (1983-86; 1991-94). He is best known in Brazil as the founder of the U of Brasilia and the Sambodromo, where the Schools of Samba parade during Carnival. His main legacy on education is his program for full-time public schools and the establishment of 500 such schools in Rio de Janeiro. 
Darcy Ribeiro is survived by former wives Berta Ribeiro and Claudia Zarvos, a brother and 8 nephews. (Mercio P Gomes) 

PETER RIGBY, 59, Professor Emeritus at Temple U died January 29, 1997, in Eldoret, Kenya, of malaria. He was born in India, grew up in Zambia and received a BA in linguistics from the U of Cape Town (1958) and PhD in social anthropology from Cambridge (1964). He taught at Makerere U (Uganda), the U of Dar es Salaam (Tanzania) and, as a visiting scholar, at various institutions before joining the anthropology department at Temple U in 1979. He returned to Africa in 1996 and was teaching at Moi U when he died. 
Rigby's intellectual odyssey was long. Recognizing the limitations of the structural-functionalism that underpinned his dissertation Cattle and Kinship among the Gogo: A Semi-Pastoral Society of Central Tanzania (1969), he immersed himself briefly in structuralism before moving toward Marxist thought in the mid-1970s. He attempted a synthesis of Marxism with phenomenology in Persistent Pastoralists: Nomadic Societies in Transition (1985) and further elaborated his Marxist perspective in Cattle, Capitalism and Class: Maasai Transformations (1995) and African Images: Racism and the End of Anthropology (1996). 
Rigby was a passionate, intense and often spellbinding teacher, who made anthropology accessible and exciting through his clarity of thought. At times, he resembled a chef peeling an onion layer by layer to expose the core issues of some complex problem or theoretical argument. By virtue of reading widely and thoughtfully in the social sciences and humanities, he interacted as regularly with archaeologists, historians, linguists and law students as he did with sociocultural anthropologists. His teaching and research helped to lay the foundations for a theoretically informed, 4-field anthropology at Temple and to establish linkages with other social sciences. Rigby's teaching and writing inspired students and colleagues in various disciplines. He helped a generation of students sharpen their understanding of anthropology, hone their skills as professionals and, most importantly, develop a greater appreciation of what it means to be human in a world that is being deformed by the commodity fetishism and alienation of capitalist social relations. 
Peter Rigby is survived by wife Zebiya, daughter Kimuli Abella and mother Rita. (Thomas C Patterson) 

WILLIAM HULSE SEARS, 76, Professor Emeritus of Anthropology at Florida Atlantic U, died December 20, 1996, at his home in Vero Beach, FL. 
Born on Long Island in 1920, Sears entered the U of Chicago in 1939 to study anthropology and archaeology. His tenure at Chicago was interrupted by service in the US Marine Corps in (1942-45). After the war, he returned to Chicago (MA 1947) and then moved his studies to the U of Michigan (PhD 1951). The summer of 1948 he and his wife Elsie went to Georgia to work on the Kolomoki site and began a 45-year commitment to the archaeology of the Southeast. 
Sears was a lecturer at Hofstra College (1954-55) and joined the staff of the Florida State Museum (now Florida Museum of Natural History) in 1955. In 1964 he was appointed chair of the Department of Anthropology at the newly formed Florida Atlantic U, where he stayed until his retirement. 
Sears's work in Georgia and Florida was fundamental to the development of ceramic chronologies still used today. He was a strong believer in a practical scientific approach to archaeology and was an unapologetic cultural evolutionist and materialist. He began writing about political and religious systems in the 1950s and published "The Study of Social and Religious Systems in North American Archaeology" (Current Anthropology, 1961). His theoretical ideas were always influenced by economic factors, for he felt that a strong and calorically productive economic base was needed for the development of complex societies. 
Sears's strong belief that corn was an essential base for the development of complex social systems in eastern North America led to his final major excavation project at the Ft Center site in Florida, where it was shown that corn was an element in the diet of the population as early as 300 BC. 
Perhaps the most interesting part of Sears's personality in the field and class is that he was always singing. Many of these songs were spontaneous in nature, grew in complexity through time but were never finished or written down. Obscure melodies from the Bahamas or the Pogo Christmas Carol were part of his repertoire, as were Protestant hymns. 
Sears served as First Vice President of the Society for American Archaeology (1960-61), and was on the Executive Committee of the Florida Anthropological Society. He was awarded the Rice U Semicentennial Medallion for valuable contributions to the Symposium on Early Man in North America (1962), a special award for achievement from the Society for American Archaeology on its 50th anniversary and the Presidential Award from the Southeastern Archaeological Conference (1996). He conducted two NSF sponsored projects: A study of the social, political and religious forms during the prehistory of the Gulf Coastal Plain and study of human adaptation in the Okeechobee Basin. 
After retirement Sears pursued his passion for fishing and was able to devote time to making fine furniture. 
William Sears is survived by wife Elsie, daughters Nancy and Amy, sons Stephen and Michael and 5 grandchildren. (Karl T Steinen) 

DONALD L SEPULVADO, 43, cultural anthropologist and director of the Division of Policy and Data at the Office of Minority Health, US Department of Health and Human Services, Rockville, MD, died October 16, 1996, in Germantown, MD, of complications associated with arthritis. 
Born in 1953, Zwolle, LA, Sepulvado was a member of the Choctaw-Apache Community of Ebarb, Northwest Louisiana. He received BA and MA degrees in social sciences from Northwestern State U, Natchitoches, LA. He went on to Catholic U, where he earned his anthropology PhD (1983), with a concentration in medical anthropology. During his doctoral studies he served as teaching assistant. Sepulvado was the recipient also of a Ford Foundation Minority Fellowship and an Indian Health Service scholarship. Research for his dissertation "Sociocultural Aspects of Arthritis from the Mississippi Choctaw Perspective" was conducted on the Choctaw Reservation in Mississippi (l980-81). He was a postdoctoral fellow at the U of Texas, School for Public Health, Center for Health Promotion Research and Development, Houston. 
Following experiences as consultant with the Legal Services Corporation in Washington, DC, Sepulvado joined the Indian Health Service (1988). His work there involved management of the scholarship and physician placement program as a Public Health Service commissioned Corps Officer. In 1992 he joined the Office of Minority Health in the Department of Health and Human Services. His many responsibilities included oversight development and coordination of the Office of Minority Health report to Congress. The office reviewed agency budget requests to ensure that requirements were consistent with the Secretary's health goals and the Minority Health Strategic Plan. Under his guidance cooperative arrangements, especially with Native Americans and Hispanic populations, were maintained. Active liaison with Indian Health Service projects nurtured scholarship and internship opportunities. He stimulated policy initiatives and was in charge of all evaluation activities at OMH. At the time of his death, he was responsible for coordinating OMH Leadership Group Meetings, which brought in experts from across the country to discuss timely and innovative minority health programs. 
Sepulvado's volunteer activities included past service with the Arthritis Foundation and membership on the Board of Directors, Spanish Catholic Health Center, Archdiocese of Washington. At the time of his death he had been recommended for appointment as Research Associate, Department of Anthropology, Catholic U. Honors he received for outstanding service include the Surgeon General's Certificate of Appreciation (1992, 1993) and the Public Health Service Achievement Award (1992). 
Donald Sepulvado is survived by wife Leslie Sepulvado and sons Michael and Adam. (Lucy M Cohen and Joan M Roche) 

MARGARET LIPPINCOTT SUMNER, 80, died July 25, 1995. She was born June 5, 1915, in Red Bank, NJ, and lived in Wayne, PA, as a schoolgirl. After receiving her BA from Bryn Mawr (1937), Sumner married Alfred Sumner and began her own combination of marriage and career. She enrolled at Columbia U, where she developed an interest in folklore and received a master's in English (1939). 
Sumner's anthropological career was launched when the family moved to California. Pursuing her earlier interest in folklore, she entered the newly formed department of anthropology at Stanford, receiving her MA in 1953 and taking her PhD exams soon thereafter. The department, under the direction of Felix Keesing, was small and innovative, encouraging the breadth and independence of mind characteristic of Sumner. During this period she did original fieldwork among Mexican Americans in San Jose, CA. Following a seminar with Gregory Bateson, her interests focused on adaptation of Mexican Americans who adopted Protestantism, compared with those who remained Catholics. This issue, now one of considerable interest in present-day Latin America, was the subject of her dissertation. 
Sumner taught at San Francisco State C (1960-62) and in the Department of Sociology and Anthropology at San Jose State C (1962-72). A popular and well-regarded teacher, she brought a humanistic worldview that was refreshing and inspiring to many. In 1972 she retired from teaching and moved to Gilmanton, NH. 
Sumner then turned her interest to doing research in Oaxaca, Mexico. Spending approximately 6 months of each year there, she worked with the Institute of Oaxacan Studies. Under the auspices of John Paddock, a project comparing antiviolent and violence-prone Zapotec villages was underway, and she participated wholeheartedly in the study. In 1978 the group was invited to form a panel at the Third Biennial Meetings of the International Society for Research on Aggression. Sumner's paper was entitled "The Social Face of Antiviolence." Though funding for the project became more and more limited, and the large body of accumulating research remained largely unpublished, Sumner continued to work until well into the 1980s. She and colleague Rose Wax Hauer provided each other with the collegial and professional support that had begun in graduate school, a support that feminist studies have shown to be an important factor in women's professional undertakings. 
The conditions under which Sumner lived in various villages in Oaxaca were difficult, and they took their toll on her physically. She spent her last years at home in Gilmanton, keeping up with her professional reading to the very end although often in considerable pain from arthritis and other ailments. There, in her own community, she was admired as a woman who combined an independence of spirit rare for women of her time, with a personal graciousness and hospitality rare at any time. 
Sumner is survived by her son William and two grandchildren. (Rose Wax Hauer) 

WILCOMB E ("WID") WASHBURN, 72, historian and anthropologist, died from prostate cancer February 1, 1997, a month after retiring from his position at the Smithsonian Institution. Entering the US Marine Corps as a private in 1943, Washburn rose to second lieutenant by 1946 (retiring as colonel, Marine Corps Reserve). Trained as a Japanese language officer--his first published article (1946) was in Japanese--he served in the military government in Japan (1946-47). Graduating from Dartmouth in 1948, he received his PhD (1955) in the history of American civilization at Harvard, where his mentor was Samuel Eliot Morison. He taught history for three years at the College of William and Mary before joining the Smithsonian Institution (1958) as curator in the Division of Political History, US National Museum. Washburn was chair of the Department of American Studies, National Museum of History and Technology and, from 1968, director of the Smithsonian's independent American Studies Program. Nearly always the sole member of this department and nonmuseum program, he pursued a very active career of research, publication, lecturing and teaching on remarkably diverse topics. He was editor or coeditor of 9 works, from The Indian and the White Man (1964) to the Cambridge History of the Native Peoples of the Americas: North America (2 vols, 1996), author of 6 books, including Red Man's Land/White Man's Law (1964), and about 200 journal articles, book chapters and newspaper op-ed pieces, plus a great many book reviews. His earliest important work, The Governor and the Rebel (1957), reversed the traditional view of the causes and significance of Bacon's Rebellion in colonial Virginia, based on fresh documentary evidence he had discovered in England. In the same year Washburn collaborated on a very useful essay and critical bibliography on Indian-white relations before 1830. While continuing to write on colonial history and Indian-Euroamerican relations, he contributed important studies of the early history of the Smithsonian, and critical, sometimes polemical, essays on the functions and purposes of museums and museum exhibits. He made major contributions to the emerging field of ethnohistory and in 1957-58 served as president of the American Society for Ethnohistory. Joining the American Anthropological Association in 1960, he participated nearly every year in its annual meetings, delivering his last AAA paper two months before his death. Among his interests were the history of exploration and cartography, and he was an important member of the Smithsonian archaeological team investigating the site of Frobisher's mining activities on Baffin Island in the 1570s. 
Washburn was a talented interviewer, with a lively and wide-ranging curiosity, and a man with a great gift for friendship. His circles of friends and students created linkages between American and European Americanists and between historians and anthropologists. Critical of many sorts of social and political activism by anthropologists and historians, he made no secret of his own conservative political views, which he did not let affect his regard and support for friends with markedly different political positions. Always a gentleman, he was charming, witty, urbane and prolific. (William C Sturtevant) 

ALSO NOTED: CORNELIS OUWEHAND, 75, founder of Japanese Studies at the Ostasiatisches Seminar, U of Zurich, died in Heiloo, Netherlands, on September 5, 1996. Born November 10, 1920, in Leiden, Ouwehand completed a training course for the Indonesian Civil Service at the U of Leiden and served 1945-1950 before joining the curatorial faculty of Leiden's National Museum of Ethnology, where he became curator of the Japanese Department (1951-1968). His doctoral dissertation (1964) was published as Namazu-e and Their Themes: An Interpretative Approach to Some Aspects of Japanese Folk Religion. Ouwehand held the Japanese chair in the newly created Ostasiatisches Seminar in the U of Zurich from 1968 until his retirement in 1986. He is considered the founder of Japanese Studies in Switzerland. Ouwehand collaborated with his wife, S Ouwehand-Kusunoki, on Hateruma: Socio-Religious Aspects of a South-Ryukyuan Island Culture (1985). Two months before his death a volume of his opera minora was published in Switzerland: Uber westostliche Wege der Japonologie und andere Reden und Aufsatze: Eine Auswahl (1996). Ouwehand returned to the Netherlands in 1992.

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