ROBERT J FRANKLIN, 45, dedicated linguist, anthropologist, teacher and chair of the Anthropology Department, California State U-Dominguez Hills, died August 17, 1997, from cancer. Born January 26, 1952, in Chattanooga, TN, Franklin received his PhD from Indiana U (1984) with his dissertation "The Role of Structure, Agency and Communication in the Federal Policy toward the San Juan Southern Paiute Tribe." The following year he began teaching at CSU-Dominguez Hills. He was an enthusiastic and inspiring teacher who demanded quality work from his students. He was appointed full professor in 1992 and became chair of the department in 1995, keeping up with his duties until a week before his untimely death.
A respected scholar and researcher, Franklin and wife Pam Bunte published From the Sands to the Mountain: Change and Persistence in a Southern Paiute Community (1987), summarizing the political and cultural development of the San Juan Southern Paiute people in recent decades, and The Paiute (1990). They also edited and annotated the 209 Southern Paiute song texts that Sapir collected in 1910 from his Southern Paiute consultant, Tony Tillohash (1994, Volume 4, The Collected Works of Edward Sapir), as well as a number of joint papers on Southern Paiute anthropology and linguistics. At the time of his death, Franklin had been a member of the Numic Comparative Lexicon team for three years and was preparing a Southern Paiute dictionary and volume of texts. His field notes on Southern Paiute will constitute a major resource for Numic studies for years to come.
Franklin worked with great love and tireless devotion on behalf of tribal rights of Native American Peoples. He and Bunte were responsible for much of the documentary effort that allowed the San Juan Southern Paiute tribe to gain Federal recognition. Recently, Franklin had been working for the Little Shell Chippewa of Montana, who are under active consideration for federal recognition. He was also working with the local Gabrielino tribe to do preliminary work on their recognition petition. Franklin was able to complete the part of that project before his death. They also worked with the Cambodian community in Los Angeles.
Franklin's family and friends will always remember his enthusiasm for life, his wonderful cooking, and his love for Celtic music and the French language and culture. Diagnosed with lymphoma in March 1997, he met his illness with the same courage, resilience and humor that marked his life. He gave his family wonderful memories of birthday cakes and family feasts (with exquisite wines chosen by him), cross-country treks and camping, whistling and singing (his own lyrics) every day, playing music on anything shaped like a tube, digging gardens, taking his girls to France and to live on Paiute Indian reservations and setting aside work to play with his girls. He is survived by his wife and partner in work, Pamela Bunte; daughters Rachel, Abigail and Rebecca; and two granddaughters. Contributions may be made in his honor to the Native American Rights Fund, 1506 Broadway, Boulder, CO 80302-6296. (Jennifer Franklin, Pamela Bunte, Victor Golla and John McLaughlin)

JON MORTER, 41, was tragically killed in a car accident in Virginia on May 19, 1997. An assistant professor in the Department of Sociology and Anthropology at the College of Charleston, SC, Morter's main research interests were in European and central Mediterranean prehistory, although he also conducted fieldwork at a number of sites in the US, Great Britain, Cyprus, Iran, Turkey and most recently the chora of Chersonesos in the Crimea, Ukraine. Morter was born in England and received a BA in ancient history and archaeology from the U of Birmingham (1977). He worked for two years at the British Institute of Archaeology in Ankara, Turkey, before coming to the US to do contract archaeology in Louisiana, Montana, New Mexico, Texas and Wyoming. Morter eventually obtained his MA (1986) and PhD (1992) in anthropology at the U of Texas, Austin, and had just completed his first year at the College of Charleston, where he attracted quite a following of students. In his brief career, he had already published some 17 papers and reports, including several relating to the excavations at Metaponto and Crotone in southern Italy, headed by Joseph C Carter. His dissertation, "Capo Alfiere and the Middle Neolithic Period in Eastern Calabria, Southern Italy," is an important contribution on early agricultural settlements and increasing social complexity in the central Mediterranean, with portions published in the Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology (1994, vol 7:115-123), in The Chora of Croton, 1983-1989 (1990, J C Carter, ed) and in a coedited volume completed just before his death, Social Dynamics of the Prehistoric Central Mediterranean (R H Tykot, J Morter, and J E Robb, eds, Accordia Research Centre, U of London, 1998).
Morter's family, friends, colleagues and students will sorely miss his great sense of humor. He is survived by his wife Hilary and their daughters Kate and Clare. (Robert H Tykot)

MAREA C TESKI, 53, professor of anthropology at the Richard Stockton College of New Jersey since 1976, died August 16, 1997, in Philadelphia. Born June 20, 1944, in Hammond, IN, Teski received her BA in the history of art from the U of Chicago (1965), her MA in cultural anthropology, archaeology and Chinese studies from Columbia (1966) and her PhD in social and cultural anthropology from Indiana U, Bloomington (1976). Teski also studied social anthropology with Maurice Freedman and Raymond Firth at the London School Of Economics.
Teski was known for her capacity to break down traditional disciplinary barriers; she refused to view issues in isolation and required people to see the broader context. Teski felt that a strong value orientation was essential to her advocacy and research. Her ability to work passionately on a variety of issues stemmed from her belief that what she was working on came from a value base and contributed to a broader value-based context. Dedicated to the study and advancement of the life and experience of the aged, Teski received grants from the Federal Administration on Aging (the elderly and economic revitalization in Atlantic City), from Stockton (a manual on caregivers of dementia patients) and from the State (a workshop on Planning for Later Life, with Dave Burdick).
Teski's better-known early publications include "The Evolution of Aging, Ecology and the Elderly in the Modern World," in Growing Old In Different Cultures: Cross Cultural Perspectives in Aging (1983, J Sokolovsky, ed); "Culture, Aging, and Stress Among Elderly Kalmuks," in Aging and Cultural Diversity (1985, Heather Strange, ed); and "Star Reach," Anthropology and Humanism Quarterly, (12, 1, Feb, 1987).
During the last decade, Teski focused attention on the uses of memory practices among various cultural groups. She laid out the theoretical and conceptual basis for developing an ethnography of memory and became principal editor (with Jacob Climo) of The Labyrinth Of Memory: Ethnographic Journeys (1995).
Teski served on the Atlantic City advisory council for Foster Grandparents, facilitated workshops on self-concepts of the elderly for the White House Conference on Aging (1981), was secretary and newsletter editor for the Society for Humanistic Anthropology (1981-84), keynote speaker for the New Jersey Association of Non-Profit Homes for the Aged and Special Publications editor for AAGE (1985-88).
To honor her memory, Richard Stockton College has established the Marea Teski Gerontology Fund. Contributions may be made to "RSCNJ FND"-Gerontology Fund, K144 Foundation Office, Richard Stockton, Pomona, NJ, 08240. Teski is survived by her husband Kryzysztof Teski, of Shamong, NJ, and son Anthony. (Jacob J Climo)

MARTIN DISKIN, 62, Professor of Anthropology in the Anthropology Program at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, died on August 2, 1997, after a long battle with leukemia.
Born on August 22, 1934, Diskin grew up in Brooklyn and attended UCLA, where he earned a BA, MA and PhD (1967). In 1976 he coauthored, with Scott Cook, Markets in Oaxaca. He edited Trouble in Our Backyard: Central America and the United States in the Eighties (1984), and also edited and contributed to El Salvador: Background to the Crisis (1982, Central America Information office). He was working on a book on land reform in El Salvador when he died.
Last year Diskin was the first recipient of the Martin Baro Fund for Mental Health and Human Rights Award. A tireless advocate for human rights, he often testified in INS court cases for political refugees from Central America, and testified several times for Congressional subcommittees on immigration policy. Passionately concerned about US foreign policy, he addressed officials in the military, State Department and other government agencies in a variety of fora. Diskin was an adviser to the UN Peace Accords that ended the 12-year civil war in El Salvador, and served as an official election observer in Nicaragua and El Salvador.
Diskin also worked on projects for Oxfam in Africa and consulted for several other NGOs. He brought a clear sense of ethics and justice to his work and teaching. An important goal for Diskin, learned by his many students, was to connect what you're doing in your research to the real world. Diskin was a pioneer in what is now called the anthropology of human rights. At a time when it wasn't really fashionable, he was using ethnography to reveal death squads, torture, injustice and broken promises concerning land reform--revealing the effects of US foreign policy at a grass-roots level.
Diskin was a superb example of the "public anthropologist," who wrote Op-Eds and similar kinds of journalism. He spoke at innumerable church and community groups. In the sense of Margaret Mead (although their politics were very different), he sought to bring anthropological insights to the public, speaking to them in ways they would understand. He worked to make the impact of US Foreign Policy, especially in Nicaragua and El Salvador, visible to people in this country. To show them the effects of their money--billions--spent on political repression, hunger, poverty and an increasing gap between rich and poor.
In sum, Diskin represented an engaged anthropology at its best. He had faith that people could come together and determine what action was in their best interest. Diskin was a model of how to see the world, and how to work to make it a better place. He is survived by his wife, Vilunya, a daughter, Leah, and son, Aaron. His many friends and colleagues feel a sense of great loss. (Jean Jackson, Lynn Stephen, Charles Hale; photo by Donna Coveney, MIT)

JOHN C EWERS, 87, died May 7, 1997, in Arlington, VA, one year after celebrating the 50th anniversary of his joining the Department of Anthropology at the Smithsonian Institution.
Ewers was interested in Indian studies since his early college days. After graduating from Dartmouth in 1931, he earned a master's at Yale (1934), supervised by Clark Wissler. His thesis, published as Plains Indian Painting: A Description of an Aboriginal American Art (1939), remains the definitive work on the topic. He received honorary doctorates from Dartmouth, Montana and Montana State.
Throughout his career Ewers successfully combined scholarship with curation, publishing over 175 articles and a dozen books as well as organizing numerous exhibitions. His first position was as field curator with the National Park Service, and he established museums and exhibits in parks and monuments from Okmulgee to Yosemite. In 1941 he transferred to the Bureau of Indian Affairs, founding the Museum of the Plains Indian on the Blackfeet Reservation, and simultaneously forming a lasting friendship with the Blackfeet people. He served in the Navy during World War II prior to joining the Smithsonian's National Museum (1946). As curator, he produced a prodigious volume of scholarship and guided major exhibit renovations. In the 1960s he played a leading role in founding a new Smithsonian museum, the National Museum of History and Technology (now the National Museum of American History), shaping the initial staffing and exhibits plans and serving as director until the museum opened, meanwhile continuing his anthropological research and publication outside of museum hours. After the museum opened he returned to a senior research position with the Department of Anthropology at the National Museum of Natural History. He consulted widely with museums and, as Chair of the Board of Trustees of the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation during the 1970s was a leader in its reorganization under mandate of the Attorney General of New York.
Ewers's research was focused on the Indians of the Plains, particularly as they lived in the 19th century. He cherished his good fortune to have interviewed the last generation of Indians who had known life on the Plains before the reservation. Studiously avoiding theoretical or methodological debate, his work nevertheless established him as a pioneer in the field of ethnohistory, reflecting his anthropological training and his interests in history and art. A hallmark of his work is the incorporation of diverse data sources--documents, interviews, artifacts and drawings by both Indian and non-Indian artists. Among his most noted works are The Horse in Blackfoot Indian Culture (1955) and The Blackfeet: Raiders on the Northwestern Plains (1958). He published widely in general interest magazines as well as in scholarly journals, yet always found time to answer letters of inquiry or chat with visiting students. He remained active in research up to the time of his death, constantly encouraging others working with Indian collections to "bring out the music in them."
Ewers was predeceased in 1988 by his wife and research collaborator Margaret, and is survived by two daughters and three grandchildren. (Candace S Greene)

DIANA ELIZABETH FORSYTHE, 49, died on August 14, 1997, while hiking in Alaska. Crossing a fast-flowing river, she lost her footing and drowned.
Forsythe grew up on the Stanford campus, attended Swarthmore College and received her PhD in Cultural Anthropology and Social Demography from Cornell U (1974). She did postdoctoral study in artificial intelligence at Stanford U (1987-88). She was Associate Adjunct Professor in the Medical Anthropology Program at UCSF from 1995 until her death. Prior to moving to UCSF, Forsythe had been a Systems Development Foundation Fellow at Stanford, Visiting Scholar in the Program in Science, Technology and Society at Stanford, and Research Associate Professor in the Departments of Computer Science and Anthropology at the University of Pittsburgh. Earlier in her career she spent several years doing research and teaching at Oxford, the U Bielefeld, U Aberdeen, Scotland, U Cologne, and Lawrence U.
Forsythe was very active in professional service. She served for three years (1994-97) as the Program Chair for the Society for the Anthropology of Work, sat on the Council of the Society for the Social Study of Science, and was on the editorial boards of several interdisciplinary journals. She was the author of three books and nearly 3 dozen journal articles, book chapters, technical reports and other publications.
For the 10 years prior to her death, Forsythe worked at the boundaries of cultural anthropology, medicine and computer science, contributing to the interdisciplinary area that has come to be known as medical informatics. She was among the very first anthropologists or sociologists to collaborate with computer scientists, and to study in detail the work practices of computing. Her ethnographic work on software development in medical informatics revealed that cultural and disciplinary assumptions are routinely (but often unintentionally) designed into such software, potentially reducing the system's benefits to clinicians or patients. Her field research in neurology, internal medicine, emergency medicine and medical genetics illuminated the meaning of "medical information" and the information needs of providers and patients in specific real-world practice contexts, and suggested ways in which software and other technology might better meet those needs. She was actively engaged in several academic and industrial research and writing projects at the time of her death.
A lifelong Quaker, Forsythe strongly supported causes related to nonviolence, women's issues and social action. She is survived by her husband, Bern Shen. A memorial fund is being developed to support dissertation research by UCSF or Stanford students in the field of social studies of science and technology. Tax-deductible donations payable to the UCSF Foundation may be sent to the UCSF Foundation, c/o Diana Forsythe Memorial Fund for Social Studies of Science and Technology, Box 0248, San Francisco, CA 94143-0248. (Linda S Mitteness)

JAMES N HILL, 62, a prominent Southwestern archaeologist, lost a gallant fight with cancer on August 2, 1997, in Los Angeles, CA.
A southern Californian, Hill was born in 1934 and graduated from Pomona College (1957). He then served as an officer in the US Navy for three years, which included several months' duty monitoring nuclear blasts at close range off Enewetak Atoll. In 1965, after obtaining his PhD at the U of Chicago, he joined UCLA's Department of Anthropology, where he remained the rest of his life. He was an able administrator as well as dedicated teacher who gave his time generously to undergraduates and who treated his graduate students like research colleagues.
Hill belonged to the exciting generation of processual archaeologists that emerged in the 1960s. His work at the Broken K pueblo in Arizona remains a classic example of how social organization may be reflected in the architectural segregation of pottery styles. He often returned to the question of style, with particular insight into its expression among individual artisans. But his abiding interest lay in the fundamental question of how archaeologists should go about explaining variability and change in prehistoric cultural systems, particularly in the realm of social organization. As a processualist, his approach was strongly colored by cultural ecology. Thus his field projects, as at Chevelon in central Arizona in the early 1970s and on the Pajarito Plateau of New Mexico some years later, searched for the interplay of subsistence pursuits and demography in the archaeological record. Methodological questions also occupied his mind, and evoked much original work on issues of research design and strategy. Hill believed that archaeology is anthropology; but he also believed that it should be pursued as an empirical science that plays by the same rules as other empirical sciences.
Apart from his classic monograph, Broken K Pueblo (1970), Hill published widely in journals and in volumes of collected papers edited by colleagues. He produced two of the latter himself in 1977, The Explanation of Prehistoric Change and The Individual in Prehistory (coedited with Joel Gunn). His work should enjoy a long shelf-life. Few have written with so much light and so little heat on the ideas that inform processual archaeology. And few can match the straightforward clarity of his exposition.
Hill was lean and athletic. He was good-natured, open and entirely free of affectation. He treasured his family and enjoyed the fabric of everyday life, playing tennis with enthusiasm and making a splendid luncheon companion. And he retained his warmth, intellectual enthusiasm, and sense of humor to the end. He was married to the anthropologist Julie Calvert, with whom he had a daughter, Sarah. He is also survived by three children from an earlier marriage, Kraig, Laura and Karlyn.
A fellowship for undergraduate research in anthropology has been established in Hill's honor. Checks should be made out to the UCLA Foundation, noting they are destined for the J N Hill Fellowship, and mailed to the Department of Anthropology, UCLA, Los Angeles CA 90095-1553. (James Sackett)

JESSE D JENNINGS, 88, one of American archaeology's giants, died at his home in Siletz, OR, August 13, 1997. Jennings' professional career, spanning more than 60 years, was one of extraordinary and sustained accomplishment. Born in Oklahoma City on July 7, 1909, he pursued archaeology in the midwest and southeast soon after his 1929 arrival as a graduate student at the U of Chicago. In 1938 he and his wife Jane dug with A V Kidder at Kaminaljuyu, Guatemala, that work leading to his Chicago PhD dissertation (1943), which he completed during World War II service as a naval officer in the North Atlantic. An early career with the National Park Service took Jennings to the Southwest and the Plains. In 1948 he left the NPS for the U of Utah, where he served until his retirement as Distinguished Professor (1986). During this period he was engaged with research projects and training students in the Great Basin, Glen Canyon, Utah and American Samoa. From 1980-94 Jennings conducted special graduate seminars as adjunct professor at the U of Oregon.
Jennings's earliest professional publication was "The Importance of Scientific Method in Excavation" (Bulletin of the Archaeological Society of North Carolina 1(1), 1934); and his summating autobiography Accidental Archaeologist (1994). Jennings's classical work was his monograph on Danger Cave (SAA Memoir 14, 1957). This pathbreaking study set a new standard for its serious attention to depositional and biotic, as well as artifactual data. Relating the archaeological evidence from Danger Cave to an ethnographic model, Jennings framed a compelling view of a long-lived Great Basin Desert Culture that will forever underpin research into desert west prehistory. His Glen Canyon: A Summary (U Utah Anthropological Papers 81, 1966), pulled together years of rescue archaeology under his direction to give a first account of Anasazi agricultural life along its northern frontier.
In addition to technical studies, Jennings early entered into writing and editing broadly synthetic works. In Prehistoric Man in the New World (1964), edited with Edward Norbeck, and his Prehistory of North America (1968), Jennings gave students and teachers the first textbook syntheses of the continent's archaeology. Each of these books continued, growing and changing shape through three editions, informing and influencing both younger and older students of American archaeology across three decades.
Jennings's long and valuable service to the profession is reflected in an exceptional list of major honors. He was editor of American Antiquity (1950-54), elected to the AAA Executive Board (1953-56), Viking Medalist in Archaeology (1958), President of the SAA (1959-60), and Vice-President and Section H Chairman of the AAAS (1961, 1971). His university named him Distinguished Professor (1974) and honored him with a Doctor of Science degree (1980). He was elected to the National Academy of Sciences (1977). In 1982 he received a Distinguished Service Award from the SAA and another from the Society for Conservation Archaeology. He was a featured plenary session speaker at the 50th Anniversary Celebration of the SAA (1985). In 1990 the Great Basin Anthropological Conference (which he founded in 1958) established the Jesse D Jennings Prize for Excellence and in 1995 he was awarded the AAA's A V Kidder Medal for Achievement in American Archaeology. (C Melvin Aikens)

ALSO NOTED: Thomas Ian Galloway Hamnett, 67, retired Reader in Anthropology, U Bristol, died in April 1997. After beginning a career in law, Hamnett turned to social anthropology to research Sotho customary law. Following completion of a PhD at the U of Edinburgh, he obtained a lectureship at the University's Centre for African Studies. A part-time appointment as Visiting Consultant Sociologists to the UNDP/FAO Usutu Basin Project in Swaziland led him to applied anthropology and publications on land shortage, local planning and the use of water resources. In 1967, Hamnett became a lecturer in sociology at the U of Bristol and was Reader in Anthropology from 1977 until his retirement in 1995. During his career, he served as editor of the Association of Social Anthropologists' monograph on Social Anthropology and the Law, Hon Treasurer of the ASA and Deputy Chairman of the Social Science Research Council's Social Anthropology Committee. At the time of his retirement he was carrying out research on confession in the Catholic church. Notable publications include: Chieftainship and Legitimacy (1975); "Sociology of Religion and Sociology of Error," Religion (1973, 3); and editorship of Religious Pluralism and Unbelief (1990). 

LOUIS RICHARD CAYWOOD, 91, one of the early practitioners of historical archaeology, died of pneumonia in Globe, AZ, April 30, 1997. Born in Bisbee, AZ, Caywood received an MA in anthropology under Dean Byron Cummings from the U of Arizona (1932), before beginning a 34-year career with the National Park Service as a temporary summer ranger at Mesa Verde. His work as a practicing archaeologist begun in 1933 as a pioneer in the implementation of Federal Emergency Relief fieldwork at Tuzigoor, the 13th-century AD pueblo in the Verde Valley, with Edward Spicer. With publication of the project in July 1935, this effort stands as a speed record for excavation and publication by any unit of Federal Relief archaeology in the 1930s and 1940s.
Caywood supervised excavations at Fort Vancouver, Fort Spokane and Fort Okanagan, WA, for the western region of the NPS. In 1954-55 he was assigned to Colonial National Historical Park to work at the site of the 17th-century English settlement at Jamestown, VA. Other special assignments took Caywood to Alaska to make survey reports on Sitka and the Kenai Peninsula, and to Hawaii to survey the islands of Oahu, Molakai, Maui and Hawaii. On loan to the Branch of Historic Sites of Canada, he excavated the site of Meductic in New Brunswick. He was also involved in NPS projects at Harpers Ferry, WV, Virginius Island, and excavation and stabilization work at Montezuma Castle, Tumacaccori, Tonto National Monuments in Arizona and Bandelier National Monument in New Mexico. After a stint at superintendent of Ocmulgee National Monument, Georgia (1956-61), Caywood ended his career in 1969 at the NPS Southwest Archeological Center, then at Globe, AZ. He leaves a legacy of meticulous fieldwork and valuable reports never made widely available. (Excerpted from the obituary by John Cotter, in the Society for American Archaeology Bulletin, September 1997, p 22.)

MICHAEL DORRIS, 52, novelist, essayist, critic and educator, took his own life in Concord, NH on April 11, 1997. He was born on January 30, 1945 in Louisville, KY. In 1967 he graduated magna cum laude from Georgetown U, majoring in English and Classics and in that same year entered Yale U. At Yale he began his graduate studies in the History of the Theater Department, but in 1968 switched to Anthropology. Being part American Indian (Modoc) himself, Dorris chose to do his ethnographic research in an Athapaskan (Dene) village of Tyonek, AK. Some of the data from that research was later incorporated into his nonfiction (and partly autobiographical) book, The Broken Cord: Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and the Loss of the Future, which received the National Book Award in 1989. In 1970 he received an MPhil degree from Yale. After teaching at Franconia College for one year, Dorris came to Dartmouth (1972), where he began as an instructor in Anthropology and Native American studies and rose to the rank of Professor of Anthropology and Native American Studies (1985). In 1978 he received a John Simon Guggenheim Fellowship. Besides being a popular and charismatic undergraduate teacher and mentor, Dorris' major contribution to Dartmouth's curriculum and student life was his tireless effort to build a nationally-recognized Native American Studies Program, which he chaired from 1972 until the late 1980s, when he left academia to become a full-time writer. (Having retained a title of Adjunct Professor of Anthropology and Native American Studies, he returned to the Dartmouth campus on a number of occasions to read his work or deliver a distinguished lecture). Besides The Broken Cord, Dorris' nonfiction works include Native Americans Five Hundred Years After (with photographer Joseph Farber, 1975), A Guide to Research on North American Indians (with Mary Byler and Arlene Hirschfelder, 1988), Rooms in the House of Stone (1993), and Paper Trail (a collection of essays, 1994). His adult fiction includes a critically-acclaimed A Yellow Raft in Blue Water (1987), The Crown of Columbus (with Louise Erdrich, 1991), Working Men (1993), and Cloud Chamber (1997). Dorris also wrote several books of fiction for young adults. While he dealt with a variety of topics in his fiction and nonfiction, the American Indian experience was one of his favorite themes. Predeceased by his father, who died while being stationed in Europe during World War II, and adopted son, Abel (1991), Michael Dorris is survived by his mother, Mary B Dorris, his ex-wife, novelist Louise Erdrich, his adopted children, Sava and Madeline, and three biological daughters, Persia, Palas and Aza. (Sergei Kan)

HAROLD W FEHDERAU, 65, African linguist and anthropologist who worked as scripture translation director for the Canadian Bible Society, died in London, Ontario, Canada, April 8, 1997. Born and raised in Kitchener, Ontario, Fehderau received an honors degree in modern languages from the U of Western Ontario (1954), an MA in German from the U of Colorado (1956) and a PhD in linguistics and anthropology at Cornell (1966). His interest in linguistics and anthropology was fostered by assignments to Zaire as a Mennonite missionary-translator for the Kituba language project, followed by 8 years as Zaire translations consultant for the United Bible Societies and 4 years in Nairobi as UBS translations coordinator for Africa. In 1980 Fehderau returned to Canada to be UBS Regional Translations Coordinator for the Americas, working with Bible translation teams for such languages as Bolivian Quechua, Aymara, Mam, Mocovi, Toba, Guarani, Tzeltal, Jamaican Patois, Haitian Creole and Gullah. From 1989 he was the scripture translation director of the Canadian Bible Society, responsible for a strong and prolonged emphasis on native-language Bible translations in Canada, where he and his support team were instrumental in the production of translations in Inuktitut, Ojibwe and Cree. He also gave invaluable support to translators working on Micmac, Algonquin, Dogrib, Naskapi, Yupik, Slavey, Montagnais and Mohawk.
Harold Fehderau died less than a month before his planned retirement, leaving his wife Nancy and their three children. (Excerpted from an obituary by Hartmut Schroeder, SSILA Newsletter 16:1, April 1997)

ESTHER SCHIFF GOLDFRANK (Wittfogel), whose long career was associated with Columbia University, died April 23, 1997, 12 days short of her 101st birthday, in Mamaroneck, NY. She was the last survivor of the women anthropologists around Franz Boas. Goldfrank's initial contact with anthropology and Boas was his general course at Barnard College, taken in 1918, her senior year. After a year on Wall Street applying her economics AB as a secretary, she became Boas's assistant and department secretary at Columbia, positions underwritten by Elsie Clews Parsons, who continued with anonymous support by her Southwest Society to finance Goldfrank's fieldwork in 1920 (Laguna), 1921 and 1922 (Cochiti) and 1924 (Isleta). Always prompt in publication, Goldfrank had "the Social and Ceremonial Organization of Cochiti" as a Memoir (No 33) of the American Anthropological Association in 1927, following three articles on these Rio Grande Pueblos. Although she selected graduate courses to attend at Columbia (1921-22, 1937), Goldfrank did not study for a graduate degree in anthropology but rather prepared herself as she felt the need. These plans were interrupted in 1922, when she married Walter S Goldfrank, a widower with three sons; her own daughter was born in 1922. In 1924 she returned to fieldwork at Isleta.
When Walter Goldfrank died suddenly in 1935, Esther came back to New York City from suburban Westchester and again participated in the Columbia department. She took part in a study of adolescent adjustment sponsored by the Rockefeller Foundation. Despite disagreement with Ruth Benedict's view of the Pueblos as an Apollonian society, Goldfrank was included in Benedict's 1939 summer field project to study the Blackfeet. This work resulted in two articles and again a division of opinion with Benedict on interpretation.
After her marriage to the Sinologist Karl Wittfogel in 1940, Goldfrank participated in Columbia's Chinese History Project, becoming staff anthropologist in 1945. During Wittfogel's academic quarters at the U of Washington she was again taking courses. When Parson's Isleta artist informant died in 1953, Goldfrank proceeded to prepare for publication his paintings of Isleta ceremonial life, collected and annotated by Parsons, but not to be revealed until his death. They appeared as BAE Bulletin 181 in 1962, followed in 1967 by Goldfrank's "The Artist of 'Isleta Paintings' in Pueblo Society" (Smithsonian Contribs to Anth 5).
Goldfrank's organizational ability and editorial skills led to her selection as Secretary-Treasurer of the American Ethnological Society (1946-48), President (1948), and Editor of the AES Monographs (1952-56). Her career is fully and delightfully recounted in Notes on an Undirected Life: As One Anthropologist Tells It (Queens College Publs in Anthro No 3, 1977). This autobiography, like its author, is spirited, clear, frank and always to the point. It is a rich source for the history of anthropology, certainly for women's studies, and for problems and procedures of fieldwork. Although I can recall comments-which in some cases may have derived from her lack of graduate degree--dismissing Goldfrank's considered and candidly expressed opinions, she was fully accepted as an astute and accomplished professional colleague.
Charles Lange provides a summary and appraisal of Esther Goldfrank's professional life in his chapter in Hidden Scholars: Women Anthropologists and the Native American Southwest (Nancy Parezo, ed, 1993). We can produce no better epitaph than from his closing paragraph: ". . . Goldfrank has left a significant legacy with her steadfast independence of thought in approaching problems in the field and in the library, with her enviable record of publication, and with her pervasive interest in, and encouragement of, younger colleagues. Anthropology is most certainly in her debt." (Nathalie F S Woodbury)

JAMES BENNETT GRIFFIN, 92, professor emeritus of anthropology at the U of Michigan, Ann Arbor, died at his home in Bethesda, MD on May 31, 1997. There have been few individuals in American archaeology with the broad scope of interest and range of expertise as James Griffin. He traveled widely in the US, Mexico and even Europe, as well as regularly attending numerous scientific meetings for more than 60 years. With this strong background, he affected the way all archaeologists of the Eastern US organized their own research data by writing a series of significant syntheses in 1946, 1952 and 1967, as well as many detailed reports and papers (over 260). He also turned out dozens of PhDs who have spread across the country in the field of North American archaeology, and who often owed their first posts to Griffin's "networking."
Besides having a great first-hand knowledge of sites and artifacts, Griffin was very open to new ideas and data. He helped pioneer in C-14 dating and was involved with other techniques such as obsidian sourcing. Although often thought of as an armchair scholar, he actually had had more experience in field research (Illinois, Pennsylvania, Lower Valley) than most realized. He was also very generous in sharing his knowledge with others; he taught for 32 years in the Anthropology Department at the U of Michigan, but also at 4 other institutions as a Visiting Professor.
Griffin was born in Atchinson, KS on January 12, 1905. He lived in the west until 1914, when his family moved to Oak Park, IL. His high school classmates included Fred Eggan and Wendell Bennett. He went to the U of Chicago for his college training (1923-27) and three years of graduate work in anthropology, before transferring to the U of Michigan with a graduate fellowship (PhD 1936).
Between 1936 and 1945, Griffin was mainly involved in museum research and curation in the Ceramic Repository at Ann Arbor, as well as doing some war-time teaching. In 1945 he finally became an Associate Professor in the Department and began his long and successful career of teaching (1946-75). Indeed the Department then became one of the major training grounds in this country for North American archaeologists.
Griffin's major contributions include editing and contributing three segments of the festschrift for his Chicago professor Fay-Cooper Cole (1952). Known colloquially as the "Green Bible," it served to set the framework for post-war progress in the field. Although often characterized as "only" a ceramic specialist, Griffin in fact covered a broad range of topics from Paleoindian times to the historic, and from climatology to dating techniques.
As his active academic career came to a close with his retirement in 1975, Griffin was accorded many honors: membership in the National Academy of Science, honorary Doctor of Science from Indiana U, Distinguished Service Award from the U of Michigan, and the Society for American Archaeology's Fryxell Award. He had earlier received the Viking Fund Medal for Archaeology (1957).
Griffin's wife of 43 years, Ruby Fletcher, died in 1979. He moved to the Washington area in 1984, where he was a Smithsonian Institution Regent's Fellow until 1990. He remained active in these Washington years, attending meetings, enjoying interaction with members of the profession and writing retrospective papers and valuable summary articles. Griffin's survivors include his second wife, Mary Marsh Dewitt; his three sons John, David and James; and 4 grandchildren. (Stephen Williams. Photo by Chase Studios, Inc)

RALPH (KEP) KEPLER LEWIS, 85, professor emeritus of anthropology at George Washington U, died May 17, 1997, in Alexandria, VA, after a stroke. He had suffered for several years from Parkinson's disease.
Born in Waynesboro, MO, Lewis graduated from Southwest Missouri State College and received a master's degree in anthropology at the U of Southern California. In 1967, he received his PhD degree from Columbia U. During World War II, he served in the Army in North Africa and France. After the war, he did 4 years of ethnographic field study among the Turkana of Kenya and later in a Christian village in northern Lebanon, which he used as the subject of his doctoral dissertation. Lewis then joined the State Department, where he served in Lebanon, as consul general in Saudi Arabia and as director of the State Department's Arabic language school. He settled in Alexandria in 1961.
Lewis joined GW's anthropology department. He had an outstanding career as one of GW's most popular teachers. During the 9 years he taught full-time, he averaged 545 students per year, the most in the department. His Cultures of the Near East course was a particular draw. He also directed about a dozen master's theses.
Lewis served as department chair (1968-71, 1974, 1981-82). He was the second director of GW's Museum Studies Program (1977-78) and taught in the Anthropology for Teachers Program (1978-79). He also was for several years a member of the board of managers of the Anthropological Society of Washington.
Lewis became professor emeritus in 1976 and retired from the University in 1982, although he continued to teach part-time until 1989, when he was forced to stop due to ill health.
Lewis's kindness, wisdom, depth of knowledge and quiet humor were greatly valued by his colleagues and students. He is survived by his wife Ferebee, sons Stephen and Bayan, 4 grandchildren, and 3 great-grandchildren.

CLEMENT MEIGHAN, 72, a professor for 39 years in the Department of Anthropology, U of California, Los Angeles and former director of UCLA's Archaeological Survey, died April 30, 1997, in Bend, OR.
Meighan's importance to UCLA and to the Institute of Archaeology is quite clear: he was a major figure in the development of UCLA's Department of Anthropology, founded the Rock Art Archive and was the first director of the Archaeological Survey, which remains part of the Institute today, as the South Central Coastal Information Center. His archaeological work was important both in Mesoamerica and in North America, specifically California.
Born January 21, 1925, in San Francisco, CA, Meighan was part of a generation that built archaeology in this country. Today, archaeology is a well-formed discipline with a set of ideas, methods and approaches for the interpretation of the ancient world. This was not the case in the 1940s and 1950s when he received his degree from U of California, Berkeley (PhD 1953). At that time, many parts of the world had not been explored archaeologically. Much of the work that was done by Meighan and others was to develop initial chronologies and assessments of the ancient cultural developments throughout the world. He was one of the first archaeologists to work in and define areas of western Mexico and the coast of California.
An important part of a generation of archaeologists who opened up the world for archaeological study and analysis, Clement Meighan will long be remembered as a remarkable archaeologist and a distinguished member of the UCLA community. (Richard M Leventhal)

STUART PIGGOTT, 86, emeritus professor of prehistoric archaeology at the U of Edinburgh, died at his Oxfordshire home on September 23, 1996. Born at Petersfield in Hampshire on May 28, 1910, the son of a schoolmaster and a Welshwoman from Breconshire, his schooling finished at the age of 16. Following a brief period as an assistant at Reading Museum, Piggott moved to Wales and a position in the Royal Commission on Ancient Monuments. Then followed 5 years as assistant to Alexander Keiller, the Scottish marmalade magnate, excavating a number of key sites for the understanding of the development of the Neolithic in southern Britain, while his "The Early Bronze Age in Wessex" (1938, Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society) established his intention to study British archaeology in its wider continental context.
Piggott's military service in India in World War II developed his interest in the archaeology of South Asia, as marked by several publications including the pioneering Prehistoric India (1950). After the war Piggott was accepted at St John's College, Oxford and in 1946 even before gaining a BLitt for his study of 18th-century English antiquary William Stukeley, Piggott was invited to succeed Vere Gordon Childe as second Abercromby Professor of Prehistoric Archaeology at Edinburgh, a post he retained until retirement in 1977.
Piggott was elected fellow of the British Academy in 1953 and in 1954 received an honorary doctorate from Columbia U, Edinburgh following in 1984. His achievements in the field peaked in the 1950s in a series of excavations in Wessex with his Edinburgh colleague Richard Atkinson as his chief collaborator, notably in their work at Stonehenge (1950-64). Among Piggott's more than 350 publications, his Neolithic Cultures of the British Isles (1954) remains a key study despite its completion before the effects of the radiocarbon "revolution" were felt. An abiding interest with the history of antiquarian thought continued right up to his Ancient Britons and the Antiquarian Imagination (1989) while consideration of the evolution of wheeled transport resulted in his last book, Wagon, Chariot and Carriage (1992).
But it was Piggott's Ancient Europe from the Beginnings of Agriculture to Classical Antiquity (first issued by Edinburgh U Press, 1965), which reached a much wider audience. Based like Childe's Danube in Prehistory on firsthand knowledge of the prehistory of Europe as a whole, Ancient Europe was dedicated "To my pupils, past and present." It is a sign of the affection in which many held that intensely private and yet often seemingly flamboyant owner of small sports cars and elegant bow ties, that Piggott should have been honored by not one but two collections of essays: Studies in Ancient Europe (1968) and To Illustrate the Monuments (1976). As well known in the USSR as in the USA, Piggott was a poet, a consummate draftsman and a cook. Gold Medallist of the Society of Antiquaries of London and member of the German Archaeological Institute, he was also a Knight of Mark Twain. Piggott leaves no close relatives, but his passing will be mourned by many. (J V S Megaw. Photo ca 1975 by J V S Megaw)

DONALD A RUNDSTROM, 56, died December 6, 1996, victim of a wrong-way driver on the highway between Albuquerque and Santa Fe, NM. Raised in a working class family in Albany, CA, Rundstrom was a gifted visual anthropologist and anthropological theorist, much of whose work was done in conjunction with surviving twin brother Ron Rundstrom. They entered the study of cultures via a Marine Corps assignment to Okinawa. Starting with martial arts, then other aspects of Japanese culture, they developed an articulate methodology for attaining highly contextualized understanding of cultures through sustained "apprenticeships" with locally recognized masters.
Rundstrom and his brother enrolled at San Francisco State U and received MA degrees in interdisciplinary social science (1970). Their MA thesis--a film, The Path, made in conjunction with Clinton Bergum--was a landmark in visual anthropology as the first ethnographic film based on sustained visual research involving cultural practitioners in every phase of the process. They also insisted the film itself be the actual "document" for the thesis, hoping thus to set a precedent for visual forms as intellectual statements.
Rundstrom was involved with the Manzanar Committee, a Japanese American community organization concerned with the concentration camp experiences of Japanese Americans during World War II, of which he was a founding board member. Together with his wife Susan Stanicci, brother, and sister-in-law Pat Rosa, he worked on a project leading to the film Uprooted! A Japanese American Family's Experience. He continued to work on Japanese American issues throughout his life, including oral history projects, family album studies, museum exhibits and the redress movement.
Moving to doctoral studies in anthropology at UCLA (1970), Rundstrom went to New Guinea to make extensive still photographic and film records of relationships among children and between children and adults as part of research into enculturation and personality development. On return, he continued doctoral studies, but both he and Ron encountered unresolvable conflicts between their innovative approaches and academic inflexibility, which left their degrees in limbo.
Rundstrom later worked on a variety of visual and cultural explorations in New Mexico, both with Ron and independently. These efforts involved collaborative work with communities in which any particular item, event or process was presented from a fully contextualized viewpoint. A refined theoretician, Rundstrom also pioneered totally new combinations of visual, tactile, sensual and textual formats to transmit cultural knowledge. At the time of his death, he had been working for many years with the Maria Martinez family of Pueblo potters on a multilayered exploration of family, aesthetics and cultural identity via video and other formats.
Donald Rundstrom was widely recognized in visual anthropology and organizationally active in the Society for Visual Anthropology. He is survived, personally and professionally, by his wife, brother and sister-in-law.
Donations in Rundstrom's memory can be made to the following nonprofit organizations: New Mexico Indian Education Association for Piee Quiyo: Spirit Women of Clay (the Maria Martinez family project); or The Manzanar Committee. Mail to: PO Box 113, Santa Fe, NM 87504. (Malcolm Collier)

MARY THYGESON SHEPARDSON, 90, an authority on the Navajo culture, died March 30, 1997, in Palo Alto, CA, after a long illness. Shepardson held a doctorate from the U of California at Berkeley (1960), taught at Mills College and retired as professor emeritus from San Francisco State U.
Born May 26, 1906, in St Paul, MN, Shepardson did her undergraduate work at Stanford and also studied at the Sorbonne and London School of Economics. Her major books were Navajo Ways in Government (1963) and The Navajo Mountain Community (1970).
Shepardson was esteemed by many members of the Navajo community and by those who studied Navajo ways and were fortunate to have known her. During her academic lifetime, she went out of her way to help women students of anthropology develop as scholars. In retirement, she published a memoir centered on her Navajo fieldwork, Fieldwork among the Navajo (1986), and worked systematically on an ethnographic monograph on the Bonin Islands and their people (in preparation). Shepardson also wrote 4 unpublished novels set in locations as diverse as Harlem, England and Boulder Dam, CO.
After the death of her sister, Shepardson married her brother-in-law, Dwight Shepardson, and the couple made many trips to Navajo villages in the Southwest. She is survived by her niece/stepdaughter Barbara Shepardson and brother Philips Thygeson. (With input from Herbert Landar, Muriel Myers, Barbara Shepardson and information from an April 4, 1997, obituary in the San Francisco Chronicle)

WALTER WILLARD TAYLOR, 83, was born in Chicago, IL, on October 17, 1913. He died of Alzheimer's disease on April 14, 1997 in Rockaway Beach, OR.
Taylor graduated from Yale (1935) and married Lyda Averill Paz in 1937. His best-known archaeological fieldwork was in Coahuila, and he taught at Arizona State College, Harvard U (Hemenway Fellow; PhD, 1943), and the U of Texas. He enlisted in the US Marine Corps (1942, OSS) and served with distinction (Bronze Star with citation; Purple Heart).
Taylor received a Rockefeller Foundation Fellowship to revise his 1943 doctoral dissertation (published in 1948 as A Study of Archeology. AAA, Monograph 69). Chapter 3 critiqued American archaeology prior to World War II, specifically the work of leading American archaeologists. Predictably, a furor erupted, more over its polemical style than content. Later, Taylor was recognized as a founder of New Archaeology, but the adverse reaction to his monograph lingered, in part because the full report of his Coahuila work was never published. Contributions to Coahuila Archaeology (SIU Center for Archaeological Investigations, Research Paper No 52, 1988) is a descriptive monograph, not a demonstration of Taylor's "conjunctive approach."
Taylor received a Guggenheim Fellowship (1950-51) and was elected a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (1954). He moved his family to Mexico in 1955, where he taught at the Escuela Nacional de Antropologia. When Lyda contracted cancer, the family returned to the US (1958) where, at J Charles Kelley's urging, Taylor became Chair of the new Department of Anthropology at SIU-Carbondale. He worked quickly to overhaul the curriculum, and by the mid-1960s, SIU had one of the best new anthropology departments. Lyda died in 1960; Taylor resigned as Chair in 1963 and accepted a research professorship that he held until his retirement from SIU (1974). The previous year, he received the Leo Kaplan Research Award from Sigma Xi.
Though a founder of New Archaeology, Taylor had limited influence on its development, perhaps because he had few students. Taylor was a brilliant, stimulating, but demanding professor. He directed PhD dissertations for only three SIU students: James Schoenwetter, R Berle Clay, and the author.
Taylor produced about 60 other publications including "The Ceremonial Bar and Associated Features of Maya Ornamental Art" (American Antiquity, 1941), "Southwestern Archeology: Its History and Theory" (American Anthropologist, 1954), "Archaic Cultures Adjacent to the Northeastern Frontiers of Mesoamerica" (Handbook of Middle American Indians, Vol 4, 1964), American Historical Anthropology: Essays in Honor of Leslie Spier (co-edited with Carroll L Riley, 1967), Culture and Life: Essays in Memory of Clyde Kluckhohn (co-edited with John L Fischer and Evon Z Vogt, 1973). A Study of Archeology, was reprinted in 1964, 1967, 1968, 1971, 1973, and 1983--a testament to its importance in American archaeology. His biography by Jonathan Reyman is available in T Murray, ed, The History of Archaeology: An Encyclopedia (in Press).
Taylor spoke flawless Spanish and was a charming raconteur, accomplished guitar player and singer, outstanding chef, oenephile, sportsman and architect. He once owned the finest personal anthropological library in the US. Ann, Peter, and Gordon, children of his marriage to Lyda Averill Paz, survive him. (Jonathan E Reyman. Photo by George Gumerman)

VINCENT TUCKER, 51, was tragically killed in a car accident in his native County Tipperary, Ireland on February 17, 1997.
Tucker is sadly missed by his students, colleagues and friends at University College Cork, Ireland, where he lectured in the Department of Sociology. His dynamic personality and strength of character made Tucker a source of support and inspiration for those around him. For his students he was a popular and approachable teacher, who understood the skill of transforming difficult intellectual concepts into fascinating and entertaining messages. Among his colleagues, he gained respect for his innovativeness and scholarly vigor. Tucker also represented the department at many levels nationally and internationally; he greatly enjoyed making new links and contacts throughout the world.
Tucker was born April 5, 1946, and trained in anthropology at Washington U, St Louis (PhD, 1984). He traveled widely in Africa and Asia, which was reflected in his universal outlook on culture and human behavior. His doctoral thesis was shaped by his passion for community activism and local development. In the early 1980s, Tucker returned to Ireland to complete research on the cooperative movement in rural Donegal. He soon got centrally involved in the Centre for Co-operative Studies at University College Cork, where he generated innovative resources and activities for both academics and practitioners. This interaction between scholarly research and activism shaped his work until the end and gave it a special relevance that emanates from deep personal commitment.
As a lecturer, Tucker mainly pursued two central areas of interest: the sociology of development and the sociology of health. In both areas, he never tired of challenging conventional perspectives and developing new conceptual and methodological tools. Similarly, he delighted in creating platforms for debate and discussion, bringing together scholars and students from a wide range of backgrounds. He was involved in founding the Cork Development Education Network (1983-91), which united various local development groups; he was a strong force behind the development of the departmental seminar series and single-handedly published the Occasional Paper Series in Irish and World Development (1992), now a valuable reference source. He was also central in establishing the MA program in Irish and World Development, which has gained an international reputation.
In recent years, Tucker concentrated mainly on two areas of scholarship. He was in the process of completing a book on the cultural perspectives of development entitled The Myth of Development. Second, building on his long-standing interest in models of health care, he had started to conduct research on indigenous and alternative medicine in India, where he was to return in March 1997. Both areas of research recently fruited in his editing of the European Journal of Development Research (December 1996), entitled "Cultural Perspectives of Development," now also published as a book by Frank Cass.
Tucker will be remembered for his warm and compassionate personality, great sense of humor, energetic charm and challenging perspectives. He is survived by his wife, Kathleen, and children Aine and Oisin. (Dirka Griesshaber)

FREDERICK WILLIAM VOGET, 84, died May 8, 1997. American cultural anthropology and Crow ethnography has lost one of its most able and brilliant scholars with his death in Portland, OR. Voget was born February 12, 1913 in Salem, OR, to Friedrich A Voget who emigrated from Germany to Oregon and Fay Isham, whose grandparents were Oregon pioneers. He attended Reed College and graduated from the U of Oregon. He attended graduate school at Yale and received a PhD in anthropology (1947). Voget's fieldwork and dissertation were with the Crow Indians of Montana. His dissertation, The Shoeshone Crow Sun Dance, was published in 1984 by the U of Oklahoma Press, and is the first full-length authoritative treatment of the Crow Sun Dance. An earlier book, A History of Ethnology, was published in 1975. Recent contributions to anthropological literature include Old Man Coyote and the "Forward" to Yellowtail, Crow Indian Medicine Man. His most recent publication was, They Called Me Agnes. The book was a finalist for the Western Writers of America Spur Award for the best non-fiction book of 1995. Voget was the author of many articles, notably "The Osage Indians" (Osage Research Report I, 1974), and "Crow Sacred Numerology" (Plains Anthropologist, 1996). Some of his other articles were published in the 1996 edition of the Encyclopedia of Cultural Anthropology sponsored by Yale. Voget served in the 71st Division of the US Infantry (1942-47) and was honorably discharged as a Master Sergeant. He taught at McGill U in Montreal, the U of Arkansas, U of Toronto, and Southern Illinois U-Edwardsville. While at SIUE he invited students to his house to meet and interact with many of the "giants of American anthropology," which included George Peter Murdock and Ward Goodenough, at the same time dismissing his own importance to the development of Americanist ethnology. He was also a visiting professor at Northwestern U and Portland State U. In 1966 Voget won a Canada Council Research Grant to work with the Six Nations reserve of Eastern Canada. He was a Fulbright Scholar to Germany in 1972 and returned there in 1979 as a visiting professor with the U of Munich. After his retirement as Professor Emeritus from Southern Illinois U-Edwardsville, Voget returned to Portland, where he continued to write and lecture. He was adjunct professor at Portland State U and a guest lecturer at the U of Oregon and Linfield C. Voget devoted his life and research since 1939 to recording and preserving the culture and way of life of the Crow as it was and is. His contribution to the study of ethnology was intended to help improve the lives of Native Americans and to promote understanding and respect for the diversity of cultures in the world. He was an adopted member of the Crow Tribe and spent part of every summer with them in Montana. (Douglas R Givens. Photo courtesy of Kay Voget)

JOE BEN WHEAT, 81, curator emeritus of the U of Colorado Museum and 43-year resident of Boulder, died June 12, 1997, in Denver after a short illness. Wheat contributed significantly to Mogollon and Anasazi archaeology of the US Southwest, Paleoindian archaeology, African Paleolithic archaeology and Southwest Native American weaving.
Born April 21, 1916, in Van Horn, TX, Wheat was interested in archaeology and Indian artifacts from childhood. He became a local authority and contact for pioneer archaeologists such as E B Sayles and Frank Setzler. Wheat studied at Sul Ross Teachers College and Texas Tech U, where he met William Curry Holden, who suggested that he transfer to the U of California, Berkeley. Wheat studied under A L Kroeber, receiving his BA from Berkeley (1937). He earned both his MA (1949) and PhD (1953) at the U of Arizona, where he studied with Emil Haury and Edward Spicer. Following 4 years in the US Army Air Force, 1941-45, and graduate school, Wheat became the first curator of anthropology and assistant professor of natural history at the U of Colorado Museum, where he worked until his official retirement in 1986 but continued archaeological work in southern Colorado.
Wheat's archaeology included work on the Smithsonian Institution's River Basin Surveys (1947) and the U of Arizona's Field School at Point of Pines (1947-48). His doctoral dissertation on ancient Mogollon culture was published in two parts as a Memoir of the American Anthropological Association and the Society for American Archaeology and a monograph by the U of Arizona. His Paleoindian research at the Olsen-Chubbock site (published as a memoir of the Society for American Archaeology) and the Jurgens site (Plains Anthropologist memoir) are landmarks of scientific excellence. In 1954 Wheat began summer field school excavations at Yellow Jacket, in southwestern Colorado. The work provided an Anasazi parallel to his Mogollon research and trained generations of archaeology students. In the 1960s, Wheat excavated sites in the Sudan and Tunisia as part of a U of Colorado expedition. Since 1972, Wheat devoted research time to textiles from the American Southwest. This work resulted in exhibitions throughout the US and accompanying publications.
Wheat served as secretary (1960-64) and was elected president (1966-67) of the Society for American Archaeology, and was honored with its 50th Anniversary Award. He received the Colorado State Archaeologist's award (1979), Robert L Stearns award (1982), Clarence T Hurst award (1990) and Byron S Cummings award (1991). He is listed in both Who's Who in America and Who's Who in the West.
Wheat was married to Frances Irene (Pat) Moore from 1947 until her death in 1987. In 1992, he married Barbara Kile Zernickow, whom he had first met in the 1940s and with whom he shared many interests. Wheat's biography and bibliography were compiled by Ann Hedlund and published in Why Museums Collect, Papers in Honor of Joe Ben Wheat, The Archaeological Society of New Mexico, 1993. (Linda Cordell and Frank W Eddy)

ALSO NOTED: RICHARD BURGHART, 49, professor of anthropology and head of the Department of Ethnology, U of Heidelberg, Germany, died January 1, 1994. Born in the US in 1944, Burghart completed degrees in social anthropology at the School of Oriental and African Studies (MPhil 1969, PhD 1978). After receiving his PhD, Burghart was employed by the London School of Economics, followed by appointment to a post in Asian Anthropology at SOAS, where he remained until moving to the U of Heidelberg in 1988. A specialist in the anthropology of South Asia, his research covered questions of caste and asceticism, Vaishnavite tradition, early devotional literature, Maithili language, Hinduism in Nepal and Britain, royal ritual and the nation-state, and Napalese history. In 1978 he helped launch the British Medial Anthropology Society as a founding member and is credited with having given one of the earliest medical anthropology courses in the UK. Burghart is survived by his wife Nadia Rheissland and two young children. (Excerpted from the obituary by Gustaaf Houtman, Anthropology Today, August 1994, p 26)

TRUMAN WASHINGTON DAILEY, 98, the last fluent speaker of the Otoe-Missouria (Baxoje-Jiwere-Nyut-chi) language, died December 16, 1996. Born on October 19, 1898, near Red Rock in Oklahoma Territory to Missouria, Otoe and Iowa parents, Dailey was also known by his man's name, Sunge Hka ("White Horse") and by his Eagle Clan name, Mashi Manyi ("Soaring High"). Born only 18 years after his tribe had left its traditional homelands in Nebraska, Dailey was well versed in the oral literature and history of his people. He supported the ceremonial life of the tribe and applied his traditional teachings in all dealings with the larger world. He was the last elder to be able to explain the reasons and meanings behind the rituals during tribal gatherings and ceremonials. Not only was he a gifted teacher among his own people, by serving as a language consultant for anthropologist Louanna Furbee and her students at U Missouri-Columbia, Dailey helped preserve his language for posterity. He was awarded an honorary doctor's degree (1993, U Missouri) and was himself the subject of a doctoral dissertation (Lori Stanley, "The Indian Path of Life: A Life History of Truman Washington Dailey of the Otoe-Missouria Tribe," U Missouri-Columbia, 1993). (Excerpted from Jimm G GootTracks's obituary, SSILA Newsletter 16:1, April 1997)

JEROME (JERRY) MILLER, 74, executive director of the Society for American Archeology from 1983-92, died of cancer in November 1996. After terminating its administrative arrangements with the AAA, Miller was recruited to manage the SAA. Under his skillful guidance, the SAA achieved a successful reorganization and professionalization, enabling it to establish financial independence and growth. The SAA honored Miller's dedication with its 1990 Presidential Recognition Award for incomparable service. Miller is survived by his wife, Dee, and their children Anthony, Sharon and Julie.

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