MISCELLANEOUS OBITUARIES
of
ANTHROPOLOGISTS


JOHN JAMES BODINE, 63, Professor Emeritus of Anthropology at American U, died August 5, 1998, at his home in Taos, NM. Bodine received his BA from the U of Oklahoma (1956) and completed both his master's (1961) and doctorate (1967) degrees at Tulane U. His dissertation research at Taos Pueblo marked the beginning of his life-long academic study and continued his heart-felt commitment to the Pueblo, deriving from his kin ties there. While his dissertation, Attitudes and Institutions of Taos, New Mexico: Variables for Value System Expression, remains unpublished, he contributed numerous scholarly articles to the ethnographic record. His guide book, Taos Pueblo: A Walk through Time, is now in its third edition. He was recognized as a preeminent authority on Taos, leading to the invitation to contribute the article "Taos Pueblo" to the Smithsonian Institution's Handbook of North American Indians, Vol 9, Southwest (1979). Of remarkable and historical significance was his testimony before the US Senate Subcommittee on Indian Affairs in 1969, which led to the return of sacred Blue Lake to Taos Pueblo in 1970, marking the first time that the US government returned land to a native group based on a religious claim. Just prior to his retirement from American U (1995), Bodine had begun new research on the work of indigenous artists at Taos.
Bodine came to American U in 1968, after teaching 5 years at Marquette U and previously serving for two years as Assistant Curator of Education (Anthropology) in the Milwaukee Public Museum. At American U he was praised by colleagues and students for his meticulously prepared classes and seminars, for his insistent maintenance of high academic standards and his conscientious administration of departmental business. He was highly regarded for the sincerity and dignity with which he treated students, staff and colleagues. Many of his students have gone on to positions in academic institutions or to settings in professional research and applied anthropology. He served as Chair of the Anthropology Department (1972-77) and was appointed Associate Dean for Graduate Affairs in the College of Arts and Sciences (1979), in which position he remained for 8 years, earning much respect from the larger academic community.
What should have been the beginning of a happy and productive phase of life when Bodine retired, was shockingly disrupted by the sudden death of his long-time partner, Malcolm Wood. Though in poor health, Bodine rallied and moved to his beloved Taos, building a house there as he had planned for so long. The simple grave-side service he desired was held at Taos on August 8, in clear view of the Taos mountains. His contributions to anthropology were considerable and varied, his bearing modest and unassuming. His disciplined approach to his life's work remains a model for his colleagues, students and friends. (Geoffrey Burkhart, Cesare Marino, Joe Dent and Dolores Koenig)

HAL E NELSON, 60, died of heart failure on April 21, 1998, in Renton, WA. Born March 21, 1938, in Grand Rapids, MI, Nelson studied history and anthropology at the U of Minnesota in the 1950s and 60s, and received his PhD in anthropology at the U of Washington (1971). He spent 1967-68 studying indigenous medicine and rural health delivery amongst Kaimbi speakers of the Nebilyer Valley in the Western Highlands of New Guinea. In the early 1970s he studied enculturation among Azorean Portuguese-Americans in central California.
After teaching anthropology at California State U, Chico (1968-72), Nelson worked on a variety of applied anthropology projects related to public health, alternative education, disabilities studies and substance abuse. In 1995 he retired as a research investigator for Washington State Department of Social and Health Services. (David Price)

JEAN TRELOGGEN PETERSON, 56, died June 2, 1998, at her home in Bondville, IL, of heart failure.
Born May 13, 1942, in Oakland, CA, Betty Jean Treloggen began undergraduate studies at the U of Kansas, where she met her husband, Warren Peterson. Married in 1962, they transferred to the U of Hawaii to pursue their growing anthropological interests in Asia and the Pacific. Peterson completed her BA in English (1966) at Hawaii, and MA (1968) and PhD (1974) in anthropology. At Hawaii, resident anthropologists Katharine Luomala and Alice Dewey, and visiting scholars Marshall Sahlins, Gregory Bateson, Andrew Vayda and Raymond Firth were strong influences on Peterson.
In 1972, Peterson joined the Department of Human and Community Development at the U of Illinois, Urbana, where she was teaching at the time of her death. She also served as director of the Women's Studies Program 1988-91.
Peterson's PhD field research was among the Agta, a foraging society of northeast Luzon, Philippines. She published 10 articles on the Agta, but the chief summation of her research appeared in The Ecology of Social Boundaries: Agta Foragers of the Philippines (1978). During the 1980s, Peterson conducted fieldwork on families, households and gender roles in the Philippines and the West Indies, and published 8 articles on this research. At the time of her death, she was conducting fieldwork on domestic violence in the US.
A social activist throughout her life, Peterson used her wisdom, energy and love to effect positive change in the world. She was active in the international women's movement and worked with women in India and the Philippines as a member of the Association for Women in International Development. She was a founding member of the Illinois Women's Studies Educators' Network. She served on the board of A Woman's Fund (Urbana shelter for battered women), 1982-92, two years of which she was president. During the last two years of her life, she worked to expand corporate initiatives in developing policies and programs on domestic violence. She applied her research in working with Employers Against Domestic Violence, other national and local organizations, and individual corporations in expanding awareness and commitment on the issue of domestic violence. She was also a member of the local chapter of Parents and Friends of Lesbians and Gays.
In recent years, Peterson returned to acting, a love of her early years, becoming a member of the Celebration Company. A statuesque 6 feet tall, green-eyed blond with the poise and presence of a Wagnerian diva, Peterson brought a commanding, sensitive presence to everything she did. Her physical beauty was evident to the most casual observer, and her spiritual beauty was one of the special joys of knowing her as a mother, wife, friend or teacher.
Peterson's survivors include her children Katherine and Samuel, and friend and former husband, Warren Peterson.
Memorial contributions may be made in her name to A Woman's Fund, 1304 E Main St, Urbana, IL 61802-2832, where a playground has been named for her. (H Arlo Nimmo)

MASRI SINGARIMBUN, 66, Professor of Anthropology at Gadjah Mada U in Yogyakarta, Indonesia, passed away on September 25, 1997, after several months' treatment for leukemia. He specialized in research and training on issues of population and rural poverty and, in his distinguished career, was one of only several internationally recognized Indonesian social scientists. The dissertation for his 1966 PhD in anthropology (one of the first for an Indonesian) at Australian National U was based upon a field study of kinship and alliance among his own Karo Batak, and it became his first book, published in 1975. Singarimbun then studied demography and remained at the Research School for the Social Sciences at ANU until 1972, when he returned to Gadjah Mada U (where he had been an undergraduate).
In 1973, Singarimbun founded the Population Studies Center at GMU, where, with his wife Irawati, established the best social science library in the country. The Center became one of the leading social research institutions in Indonesia and hosted many visiting scholars. Singarimbun's own work, and his collaboration in research and publication with some of them, contributed greatly to the understanding of Indonesian demographics and Java's rural poverty. He served as consultant to foreign donor agencies and the Indonesian government, and his Center trained both social scientists working on population and economic issues and family planning workers from all over the country. Later in life and in retirement, he wrote socially and culturally insightful newspaper pieces on contemporary problems in addition to academic publications.
Singarimbun's dedication and perseverance (in the face of sometimes hostile economic and political situations), his openness and intellectual curiosity and honesty (which sometimes led to conflict with government over approaches to rural areas), and his infectious enthusiasm and smile will be remembered by all who knew him. In 1996 ANU awarded him an honorary doctorate, capping a career which was a model union of academic and public service. (Clark E Cunningham)

SHARON STEPHENS, 46, Assistant Professor of Anthropology and Social Work, U of Michigan, died in her Ann Arbor home on June 17, 1998. Born in Walla Walla, WA, Stephens was both an undergraduate and graduate student at the U of Chicago, where she received her PhD in anthropology (1984). After teaching at Johns Hopkins U, she became an assistant professor of anthropology at U of Chicago, where she taught 1987-93. Taking a position at the Norwegian Centre for Child Research in Trondheim, Norway (1993), Stephens subsequently joined the U of Michigan faculty (1995).
A foremost ethnographer of the northern Scandinavian Sami (Lapps), Stephens devoted her early work to exploring the articulation of systemic cultural transformations with historical transitions in Sami economic orders. This mode of analysis was exemplified in her "Ideology and Everyday Life in Sami (Lapp) History" (1986), which questioned the wisdom of making unmediated connections between preconceived realms of material practice and ideological structure. The occurrence of the Chernobyl reactor accident in April 1986 catastrophically transformed Sami life, however, and its aftereffects increasingly compelled Stephens to participate in public intellectual life. While pursuing a range of scholarly activities, she also wrote a series of articles on Chernobyl and the Sami for publications such as Natural History, Not Man Apart (Friends of the Earth), and Cultural Survival Quarterly; her engagement with environmental issues intensified when she joined the Norwegian Centre for Child Research in 1993. As Director of the Centre's International Children and Environment Program, Stephens organized and facilitated a remarkable number of major international conferences on children in a global context. Many of these symposia focused on documenting the effects of radiation on the lives of children throughout the world.
Stephens's scholarship broke completely new ground in what is still the nascent field of the anthropology of children. Recognizing that children constitute yet another realm of difference and marginality, Stephens devoted her considerable political and intellectual energies to thinking about children and the risks they both face and signify in the late 20th century. Indeed, her edited volume Children and the Politics of Culture (1996) has become the standard collection in this area, and her lengthy introductory essay "Children and the Politics of Culture in 'Late Capitalism' " is exemplary for its synthesizing vision and ever-thoughtful questioning of the categories--of politics, culture, "the child" itself--that make up the received landscape of social scientific work on children.
Stephens was continuing her important work on children at the U of Michigan and was actively involved in a long-term research project on the internationalization of child research. She was known by her students as the most generous and caring of teachers. For all who knew Sharon Stephens, her singular qualities of mind, extraordinary integrity and deep compassion make her utterly irreplaceable.
Stephens is survived by her daughter Kaisa Talaga. Remembrances may be made in her name to the Sharon Stephens Memorial Fund for Children, Account #179-1455372, Washington Mutual, Silverlake Financial Ctr, 11014 19th Ave SE, Suite G, Everett, WA 98202-5121. 

ELLIS R KERLEY 74, physical anthropologist, forensic anthropologist, professor and administrator died September 3, 1998 of leukemia in San Diego. Born in Covington, KY September 1, 1924, he was awarded the BS degree with an emphasis on physical anthropology (1950) at U Kentucky. He received his MS degree (1956) and PhD (1962) at U Michigan specializing in physical anthropology, anatomy and human genetics and then studied orthopedic pathology at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology in Washington, DC. Prior to receiving his Masters' degree, Kerley served as Staff Anthropologist of the Bowman Gray School of Medicine, North Carolina, participating in a genetic, serologic and anthropometric survey of mountain communities. From 1954 to 1955 Kerley worked for the Department of the Army, Graves Registration, Central Identification Laboratory in Kokura, Japan, identifying the deceased from the Korean Conflict. His post-PhD positions included (in addition to an association with the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology) teaching and administrative positions at the universities of Kentucky (1965-66), Kansas (1966-71), Maryland (1972-87) and Puerto Rico Medical School (1980-81). In 1987, he shifted from his teaching career to serve as Forensic Anthropology Consultant and Scientific Director of the United States Army Central Identification Laboratory at Fort Shafter, HI until retirement in 1991.
Although his many publications and lectures cover the full range of human skeletal biology, Kerley was best known for his many contributions to forensic anthropology. In 1965 he pioneered an innovative technique of determining age at death from human cortical bone utilizing microscopic examination of histological features. The "Kerley technique" is still in use today and has stimulated considerable additional related research.
Kerley was largely responsible for the formation in 1972 of the physical anthropology section of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences and in 1977-78 of the American Board of Forensic Anthropology, Inc. Kerley served as Chairman of the Physical Anthropology section for its first two years and then again in 1975-76 and in 1980 was awarded that section's highest honor for career service. He also served as the first President of the American Board of Forensic Anthropology (1977-80), President of the Forensic Sciences Foundation (1978-80) and held various high offices of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences, becoming the only anthropologist to be elected President of that organization (1990-91). He consulted on many forensic cases, including the John F Kennedy assassination (1978), Josef Mengele identification in Sao Paulo, Brazil (1985), study of the MOVE incident victims in Philadelphia (1985), identification of the Challenger Astronauts (1986), and the examination of victims of alleged Bosnian war crimes.
Ellis Kerley was widely regarded as an extremely knowledgeable physical anthropologist, accomplished forensic anthropologist, a gifted teacher and a warm and compassionate person. His impeccable reputation and many accomplishments ensure him a prominent place in the history of forensic anthropology. He is survived by his wife Mary Adams, and daughters, Mary Elise Kerley, Laurelann Bundens and Amy Moorhouse. (Douglas H Ubelaker)

ALSO NOTED: LIBERTAD HERNANDEZ was assaulted and strangled by a taxi driver in Mexico City on August 7, 1998. Born in Xalapa, Veracruz, Hernandez earned her BA in anthropology from U Veracruzana. Shortly thereafter she began working as Subdirector of the Social Service University System. She created the Community Health Department in 1978 and the first state program for Primary Health Attention in 1980. Hernandez also organized three educational programs, Health Popular Participation, which were internationally recognized and applauded. She became the University Extension Director at U Veracruzana as well as a professor in Public Health. In 1992, Hernandez earned her PhD from U Autonoma de Barcelona, Spain in psychology. During her tenure as professor in the Psychological Research Institute at U Veracruzana, she also held the directorship of the Programa Comunitario de la Mujer, a government program for women.

SHEILA PATTERSON, 80, social anthropologist and pioneer of race relations research, died June 21, 1998. Born Sheila Caffyn in 1918, Patterson earned a diploma in anthropology (1951) and PhD in anthropology (1968) at the London School of Economics. Following work as a translator and editor for the Polish Ministry of Information during the war, she did research in South Africa with Cape Colored people, in England with West Indian immigrants, and in Barbados and St Vincent. For 16 years she also edited New Community, the journal of the Community Relations Commission. Patterson's books include: Dark Strangers (1963), Immigrants in Industry (1968) and Immigration and Race Relations in Britain (1969). Although she took the name of her first husband, Patterson later lived in Hove with her third husband, Tadeusz Horko.

DENISE PAULME, 89, leading French Africanist, died February 14, 1998. A student of Mauss at the Institut d'Ethnologie, Paris, Paulme did fieldwork among the Dogon in Mali before World War II. Appointed to head the Black Africa department at the Musee de l'Homme, she carried out fieldwork in Guinea with her husband, musicologist Andre Schaeffner. Her publications include Les gens du riz, Une societe de Cote d'Ivoire hier et aujourd'hui, Les Bete, and Femmes d'Afrique noire. Paulme was appointed head of the Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, VIe Section (1958), and co-founded the Centres des Etudes Africaines. 

RICHARD GEORGE CONN, 69, Chief Curator and Native Arts Curator Emeritus at the Denver Art Museum, died of a heart attack on July 14, 1998. Born in Bellingham, WA, on October 28, 1928, Conn's childhood interest in Pacific Northwest Indians grew into a lifelong passion for American Indian art and culture and a career in museums. Conn earned BA (1950) and MA (1955) degrees in anthropology at U of Washington, Seattle, and augmented his academic interests with skills as a hobbyist and craftsman in beadwork and basketry.
Conn's career was spent in museums educating the public about the artistic achievements of American Indians, especially in the areas of the Plains and Plateau. His museum service included positions at the Spokane Public Museum (1951), the Denver Art Museum (1955-59), the Eastern Washington State Historical Society, Spokane (curator and director, 1959-66), the Manitoba Museum of Man and Nature (chief curator, 1966-69), the Heard Museum (director, 1970-71), and the Denver Art Museum (Curator of Native Arts, 1972-90, and Chief Curator, 1990-1993). He was also adjunct curator of Native American Art at the Lowe Art Museum, Miami. In retirement Conn taught at several Denver universities and worked as an exhibit and collection consultant. At the time of his death, he was guest curator at the New Orleans Museum of Art for the exhibit: Tlanuwa's Heritage: A Millenium of Southeastern Native American Art.
At the Denver Art Museum, Conn curated over 40 temporary exhibitions. One of the best known, "Circles of the World," opened in Denver (1982) and spent three years on a critically acclaimed tour of world museums. His innovative "open" installation of the permanent American Indian Art collection (1988) has been emulated by museums across the country.
Conn's publications include: Robes of White Shell and Sunrise (1974) Native American Art in the Denver Art Museum (1978); Circles of the World: Traditional Art of the Plains Indians (1982); A Persistent Vision: Art of the Reservation Period (1986); Die Kultur der Indianer Nordamerikas (1987); Les Indiens d'Amerique: Objets d'art et Objets du Quotidien (1987); and American Indian Art from the Denver Art Museum (1990). Conn also mentored two generations of younger scholars and trained those less knowledgeable about the nuances of tailored clothing, half hitch coiling and Plateau beadwork. In 1992 he returned a lost artistic tradition to the Houma Nation (Louisiana) when they invited him to teach a rare basketry technique that had been lost for several generations. The culmination of his career came in 1994 when he was awarded the Governor's Award for Excellence in the Arts in Colorado. Conn played several woodwind instruments and belonged to a Renaissance music group. Friends and colleagues will remember him for his passion for Native American art and unfailing gentlemanly wit and banter.
The Native American Art Studies Association welcomes donations in memory of Richard Conn for the support of scholarships. Contributions may be addressed to: NAASA Scholarship Fund, c/o Bill Mercer, Treasurer, Portland Art Museum, 1219 SW Park Ave, Portland, OR 97205. (Nancy J Blomberg)

HUGH CARSON CUTLER, 86, died in Topeka, KS, September 22, 1998. Born in Milwaukee, WI, September 8, 1912, Cutler employed flotation recovery for his U of Wisconsin BA (1935) and MA (1936) in botany. His influence inducing archaeologists to employ this technique is important in the history of anthropology. He secured his PhD from Washington U (1939). Cutler's shift into economic botany and archaeobotany began as early as his marriage in 1940. He and his wife, Marian, spent their three-month honeymoon traveling in the US SW, Mexico and Guatemala, where Cutler collected 300 cultivated varieties of maize (including 900 year-old pueblo ruin specimens) and 60 wild varieties of tripsacum. This trip signaled his interest in archaeobotany and career commitment to useful plants of the New World and their relatives; studies related to the taxonomy of useful plants; research on the wild relatives, variability and kinds grown by living people; and specimens recovered from archaeological sites. From 1941-46, he conducted research in Peru, Bolivia and Brazil. He had Guggenheim Fellowships to conduct research on useful plants in Peru and Bolivia (when he also made ethnographic films) and in 1943-45 he worked for the US Army Rubber Development Corporation, flying in blimps over Amazonia identifying wild rubber tree groves. (He later had other Guggenheim, Wenner-Gren and NSF grants to study maize, cucurbits and ethnographic plant use.) From 1947-53 he was Curator of Economic Botany (Field Museum); in 1953 he moved to the Missouri Botanical Garden to take a similar position. During the 1950s he got more directly involved with archaeologists, employing flotation techniques to extract plant remains from excavations at Tularosa Cave and Higgins Flat pueblo excavations at the Point of Pines (1951-53).
It was not until the mid-1960s that North American archaeologists heeded his call to adopt this method. Best known are Stuart Struever, who says Cutler taught him the technique when he came to visit his son at a Struever excavation, and Patty Jo Watson, an undergraduate student on Haury's 1953 dig.
Cutler continued his position at MBG until retirement (1977). Initially much time was taken up in administrative responsibilities, but later he was able to devote more time to anthropological questions. Most of his more than 150 publications focus on analyses of plants brought by archaeological and ethnographic field workers. Cutler developed particular expertise in the analysis of races of maize, squashes and gourds, although he identified gratis all specimens submitted. He recruited local avocational archaeologists to assist in these analyses. Cutler was generous in sharing credit in his publications; thus one of these volunteers, Leonard W Blake, is listed as co-author of a large number of analyses, including "Plants from Archaeological Sites East of the Rockies," 1973. Cutler became Adjunct Professor of Anthropology (1969), and began departmental instructions in paleoethnobotany. After retirement, his archaeological specimen collection was sent to the Illinois State Museum, and his 12,000 ear ethnographic maize collection was transferred to the Agriculture Department of the U of Illinois. (David L Browman, with Leonard Blake, William Cutler, Douglas Holland, Carole Prietto and Patty Jo Watson)

JOHN LANGSTON GWALTNEY, 69, died in Reston, VA on August 29, 1998, after a long illness. The final lines of his poem, Tested Assurance, instruct us on how he wished his obituary to be framed: "Grudge not my rest. I do but doze and when I wake again, I'll bring the rose." So much of his life and work as an anthropologist, and a ritual carver centered on what he called the "will of black people to preserve and celebrate our rich and worthy way of being human." It is as if he were saying, just as a rose by any other name is still a rose, black people by any name you may call them are still practitioners of what it means to be human. Each of his ritual carvings, like every rose, is a thing of beauty that symbolizes more than eyes might see. Indeed, Gwaltney came into this world on September 25, 1928, unable to see. But his blindness never robbed him of a vision of how the world could be if we ever managed to deal with the systems of inequality that haunt us. His indomitable spirit, bountiful compassion, and endless sense of humor were matched by an exceptional intellect and unusual tenacity that allowed him to carry out fieldwork that would earn him a place among those who have made lasting contributions to native anthropology and the anthropology of African Americans.
Gwaltney received a BA from Upsala College (1952), MA from the New School for Social Research (1957), and a doctorate in anthropology from Columbia U (1967). He taught at the State U of New York at Cortland and Syracuse U. A student of Margaret Mead, Gwaltney did his doctoral field work among Chianantec-speaking people in Oaxaca, Mexico, in a village centrally located in a zone where onchocerciasis (river blindness) struck large numbers of the inhabitants. He reworked his dissertation into a book, The Thrice Shy: Cultural Accommodation to Blindness, and Other Disasters in a Mexican Community, that received the Ansley Dissertation Award. Drylongso: A Self Portrait of Black America (1980) won honorable mention for the Robert F Kennedy Book award. The Dissenters: Voices from Contemporary America (1986) was a semi-finalist for the Kennedy Book award.
In 1989, the Association of Black Anthropologists chose Gwaltney to receive its Distinguished Achievement award for extraordinary scholarship and artistry. And it is this duality of scholarship and artistry that Gwaltney himself captured when he declared that much of his work, even when it is not ritual or sacred, is ritually inspired.
Gwaltney is survived by his wife Judy, a daughter Karen and a host of other kin, colleagues and friends. Each of us will continue to be inspired by the lessons he taught us--most importantly, the power of the human spirit to soar above adversities.
Contributions in his memory may be made to the John Langston Gwaltney Native Anthropology Scholarship, c/o Association of Black Anthropologists, Key Bank, 95 E Sherman St, Lebanon, OR 97355 (Johnnetta B Cole)

ALDEN C HAYES, 82, anthropologist, rancher and adventurer, died in Portal, AZ, August 23, 1998. Born on January 11, 1916 in Englewood, NJ, Hayes initially leaned towards a forestry career. Following a chance meeting with anthropologist Edgar L Hewett, he enrolled at U of New Mexico in anthropology (1935), where he graduated with a BA (1939). Hayes married fellow anthropology student, Gretchen Chapin, in 1941, a partnership that lasted until Gretchen's death (1982). They had sons, Eric and Marc, and two grandsons.
In 1936-37, Hayes and friends made a 5-month, 2000-mile canoe trip down the Mackenzie River (Down North to the Sea, 1989) looking for early archaeological sites supporting the speculation regarding humans crossing the Bering Straits. Hayes also assisted ethnologist Anne M Smith in her research of the Utes, Goshuites and Shoshones of Nevada and Utah (Shoshone Tales, 1993).
In World War II and the Korean War, Hayes served as a medical supply officer with the 11th Airborne, rising to Lt Colonel. During 1940-56 he had turned to ranching in Cochise County, Arizona, and part-time work with the US Forest Service as a smoke chaser. But drought drove him to the National Park Service for a paying job, where he worked until retirement (1976). Hayes became a well-known field hand and an authority on Southwestern prehistory. He started in 1957 as a ranger-archaeologist at Casa Grande Ruins, then became supervisory archaeologist on the Wetherill Mesa Project, Mesa Verde National Park (1958-65). His The Archeological Survey of Wetherill Mesa (1964) still stands as an exemplary report. Working with Al Lancaster, Hayes published their work of a long-lived puebloan site (The Badger House Community, 1975).
Transferred to the Southwest Archaeological Center, Hayes excavated Las Humanas (Gran Quivira) in New Mexico (1965-68), a task that revealed kiva murals and considerable information on the Spanish and Indian contact period (The Excavation of Mound 7, 1981). This was followed by extensive work at Pecos National Monument, New Mexico (The Four Churches of Pecos, 1974).
In 1971 Hayes joined the Chaco Project. Under his guiding hand, a cultural resource inventory was completed providing an unparalleled look at the human development of Chaco Canyon (Archeological Surveys of Chaco Canyon, 1981).
After retirement Hayes began a long association with the Crow Canyon Archaeological Center, and served on its Board of Directors. While on safari in Africa, he met Karen Chalker, whom he married in 1984, acquiring two stepdaughters, Kirsten and Kari.
Hayes' final work on the history of the Chiricahua Mountains of southeastern Arizona (A Portal to Paradise), is due for publication in 1999.
Hayes was a gentleman and scholar of quietly insightful humor. He helped shape the careers of many archaeologists, yet was lenient and flexible in a bureaucracy often less so. He was honored by the New Mexico Archaeological Society (Prehistory and History in the Southwest: Collected Papers in Honor of Alden C Hayes, 1985).
The Alden C Hayes Research Fund at Crow Canyon Archaeological Center (23390 County Road K, Cotez, CO, 81321) has been established to commemorate his work. (Thomas C Windes, Karen Hayes. Photo by Karen Hayes)

WILLIAM A SMALLEY, 75, died on in New Haven, CT. He had lived in Hamden, CT. The headline in the New York Times obituary (December, 26 1997) proclaimed his major contribution, "Linguist for the Hmong." Together with Catholic priest Yves Bertrais and fellow missionary-anthropologist Linwood Barney, Smalley developed a Latin orthography for the Hmong language. Today this written form appears, among other places, on Hmong websites on the Internet and, more broadly, it is used by the approximately 200,000 Hmong from Laos who settled in the US after the Indochina War. Thus while most anthropologists are memorialized for their work within the profession, Smalley's career followed a path. Its major focus was defined by his parents who were missionaries in Jerusalem and where he was born in 1923. He received his undergraduate degree from Houghton College and doctorate in anthropological linguistics from Columbia U (1955). Smalley then worked for the American Bible Society. In 1978 he joined the faculty of Bethel College, St Paul, MN, where he served as a professor of linguistics, retiring 10 years later. His doctoral work was on the Kammu language spoken in the area of Luang Prabang in northern Laos, where he was associated with the Christian and Missionary Alliance. His dissertation was published as a monograph by the American Oriental Society (1961).
Smalley's fieldwork began in 1948-49 with research on Comanche phonology and morphology. Additionally, from 1950-54, he worked in Vietnam and Laos on the Vietnamese and Sre languages, and began his lifelong work on Hmong. From 1955-1972 he was a translations consultant in Haiti and Africa, continuing this work while resident in Thailand. In 1955 he helped found and edited the journal, Practical Anthropology, which was designed to provide anthropological perspectives to missionary work. Of more general interest to anthropologists was his, Mother of Writing, The Origin and Development of a Hmong Messianic Script (1990), which he wrote with Hmong colleagues. His last book was Linguistic Diversity and National Unity, Language Ecology in Thailand (1994). He also co-authored, again with Hmong colleagues, the monograph, The Life of Shong Lue Yang: Hmong "Mother of Writing," for the Center for Urban and Regional Affairs (U Minnesota). To further his research and publication in the 1980s Smalley received a number of grants from NEH as well as from the SSRC/ACLS sub-committee on Indochina Studies. He was generous in sharing his field notes and helped this writer, who succeeded him in researching the Luang Prabang area in the mid 1950s. His linguistic texts provided a unique emic perspective on Kammu culture. Overall he wrote more than 120 articles, books and monographs on linguistics, writing systems, translation, missions, applied linguistics, applied anthropology and cross-cultural communication, a significant portion of it growing out of his Southeast Asian experiences.
In addition to his wife Jane, Smalley is survived by sons William Jr and Stephen, daughter Carol Jane, and 4 grandchildren. (Joel M Halpern)

ROSALIE HANKEY WAX, 87, died 4 November 1998, in St Louis, MO. Born 1911 in a German Lutheran community, DesPlaines, IL, she had an erratic childhood, learning to read and cultivating her voice and musicianship, but never completing school. As the oldest child, and female, she assumed responsibility for her siblings during familial crises and the Great Depression. Only after the siblings had been satisfactorily situated in institutions of higher education, did she begin formal schooling. Her abilities were quickly recognized and with the assistance of a Phoebe Hearst scholarship, she enrolled in U of California, Berkeley, where she was inspired by Alfred Kroeber and Robert Lowie and earned her BA.
During World War II, when Japanese Americans were incarcerated in concentration camps, Wax became a researcher for the U of California Evacuation and Resettlement Project. She conducted fieldwork at Gila, and then at Tule Lake, where those who had "declared themselves disloyal" were interned. The situation was fraught, and she had troubles locally and with the head of the project. Eventually, the Department of Interior expelled her from Tule Lake on the grounds that she had transmitted information to the Department of Justice.
On Kroeber's recommendation, Wax undertook graduate study at U of Chicago and wrote her doctoral dissertation and several journal articles on the events at Tule Lake. Meanwhile, she was recruited to the social science program in The College: becoming one of its charismatic teachers, ultimately serving as Chair, Social Science II. The Dean of the College promised promotion and tenure, but with a new university administration, these promises were abrogated on the grounds that, being a women with a salary-earning spouse, she did not need the faculty position.
Wax and her husband, Murray Wax, were then recruited by Sol Tax to direct summer Workshops for American Indian college students, and thus was launched a career concentration on Indians and schools. In particular, Wax participated in fieldwork among the Oglala Sioux, Oklahoma Cherokee and Minnesota Chippewa. findings of the work among the Sioux were highly influential: Formal Education in an American Indian Community (1964), initially published by the Society for the Study of Social Problems, was reprinted in the Congressional Record with enthusiastic responses from their hosts, the Oglala.
Wax's research experiences were always conducted under political and legal difficulties, and so she was impelled to write Doing Fieldwork: Warnings and Advice (1971)--one of the earliest reflexive accounts of anthropological fieldwork. The frankness of the narratives made it the funniest book in anthropology.
When fieldwork was difficult because of university responsibilities, Wax began intensive study of Old Scandinavian languages and literatures. The major outcome was Magic, Fate, & History: The Changing Ethos of the Vikings (1969).
After further vicissitudes Wax served as professor, U of Kansas, Lawrence, then at Washington U, St Louis. The staff of the nursing home where she had been for 7 years reported that on her birthday, November 4, she started to sing, then lay down on her bed and passed peacefully away. (Murray L Wax)


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