|JOHN JAMES BODINE, 63, Professor Emeritus of Anthropology at American
U, died August 5, 1998, at his home in Taos, NM. Bodine received his BA
from the U of Oklahoma (1956) and completed both his master's (1961) and
doctorate (1967) degrees at Tulane U. His dissertation research at Taos
Pueblo marked the beginning of his life-long academic study and continued
his heart-felt commitment to the Pueblo, deriving from his kin ties there.
While his dissertation, Attitudes and Institutions of Taos, New Mexico:
Variables for Value System Expression, remains unpublished, he contributed
numerous scholarly articles to the ethnographic record. His guide book,
Taos Pueblo: A Walk through Time, is now in its third edition. He was recognized
as a preeminent authority on Taos, leading to the invitation to contribute
the article "Taos Pueblo" to the Smithsonian Institution's Handbook of
North American Indians, Vol 9, Southwest (1979). Of remarkable and historical
significance was his testimony before the US Senate Subcommittee on Indian
Affairs in 1969, which led to the return of sacred Blue Lake to Taos Pueblo
in 1970, marking the first time that the US government returned land to
a native group based on a religious claim. Just prior to his retirement
from American U (1995), Bodine had begun new research on the work of indigenous
artists at Taos.
Bodine came to American U in 1968, after teaching 5 years at Marquette
U and previously serving for two years as Assistant Curator of Education
(Anthropology) in the Milwaukee Public Museum. At American U he was praised
by colleagues and students for his meticulously prepared classes and seminars,
for his insistent maintenance of high academic standards and his conscientious
administration of departmental business. He was highly regarded for the
sincerity and dignity with which he treated students, staff and colleagues.
Many of his students have gone on to positions in academic institutions
or to settings in professional research and applied anthropology. He served
as Chair of the Anthropology Department (1972-77) and was appointed Associate
Dean for Graduate Affairs in the College of Arts and Sciences (1979), in
which position he remained for 8 years, earning much respect from the larger
What should have been the beginning of a happy and productive phase
of life when Bodine retired, was shockingly disrupted by the sudden death
of his long-time partner, Malcolm Wood. Though in poor health, Bodine rallied
and moved to his beloved Taos, building a house there as he had planned
for so long. The simple grave-side service he desired was held at Taos
on August 8, in clear view of the Taos mountains. His contributions to
anthropology were considerable and varied, his bearing modest and unassuming.
His disciplined approach to his life's work remains a model for his colleagues,
students and friends. (Geoffrey Burkhart, Cesare Marino, Joe Dent and Dolores
HAL E NELSON, 60, died of heart failure on April 21, 1998, in Renton,
WA. Born March 21, 1938, in Grand Rapids, MI, Nelson studied history and
anthropology at the U of Minnesota in the 1950s and 60s, and received his
PhD in anthropology at the U of Washington (1971). He spent 1967-68 studying
indigenous medicine and rural health delivery amongst Kaimbi speakers of
the Nebilyer Valley in the Western Highlands of New Guinea. In the early
1970s he studied enculturation among Azorean Portuguese-Americans in central
After teaching anthropology at California State U, Chico (1968-72),
Nelson worked on a variety of applied anthropology projects related to
public health, alternative education, disabilities studies and substance
abuse. In 1995 he retired as a research investigator for Washington State
Department of Social and Health Services. (David Price)
JEAN TRELOGGEN PETERSON, 56, died June 2, 1998, at her home in Bondville,
IL, of heart failure.
Born May 13, 1942, in Oakland, CA, Betty Jean Treloggen began undergraduate
studies at the U of Kansas, where she met her husband, Warren Peterson.
Married in 1962, they transferred to the U of Hawaii to pursue their growing
anthropological interests in Asia and the Pacific. Peterson completed her
BA in English (1966) at Hawaii, and MA (1968) and PhD (1974) in anthropology.
At Hawaii, resident anthropologists Katharine Luomala and Alice Dewey,
and visiting scholars Marshall Sahlins, Gregory Bateson, Andrew Vayda and
Raymond Firth were strong influences on Peterson.
In 1972, Peterson joined the Department of Human and Community Development
at the U of Illinois, Urbana, where she was teaching at the time of her
death. She also served as director of the Women's Studies Program 1988-91.
Peterson's PhD field research was among the Agta, a foraging society
of northeast Luzon, Philippines. She published 10 articles on the Agta,
but the chief summation of her research appeared in The Ecology of Social
Boundaries: Agta Foragers of the Philippines (1978). During the 1980s,
Peterson conducted fieldwork on families, households and gender roles in
the Philippines and the West Indies, and published 8 articles on this research.
At the time of her death, she was conducting fieldwork on domestic violence
in the US.
A social activist throughout her life, Peterson used her wisdom, energy
and love to effect positive change in the world. She was active in the
international women's movement and worked with women in India and the Philippines
as a member of the Association for Women in International Development.
She was a founding member of the Illinois Women's Studies Educators' Network.
She served on the board of A Woman's Fund (Urbana shelter for battered
women), 1982-92, two years of which she was president. During the last
two years of her life, she worked to expand corporate initiatives in developing
policies and programs on domestic violence. She applied her research in
working with Employers Against Domestic Violence, other national and local
organizations, and individual corporations in expanding awareness and commitment
on the issue of domestic violence. She was also a member of the local chapter
of Parents and Friends of Lesbians and Gays.
In recent years, Peterson returned to acting, a love of her early years,
becoming a member of the Celebration Company. A statuesque 6 feet tall,
green-eyed blond with the poise and presence of a Wagnerian diva, Peterson
brought a commanding, sensitive presence to everything she did. Her physical
beauty was evident to the most casual observer, and her spiritual beauty
was one of the special joys of knowing her as a mother, wife, friend or
Peterson's survivors include her children Katherine and Samuel, and
friend and former husband, Warren Peterson.
Memorial contributions may be made in her name to A Woman's Fund, 1304
E Main St, Urbana, IL 61802-2832, where a playground has been named for
her. (H Arlo Nimmo)
MASRI SINGARIMBUN, 66, Professor of Anthropology at Gadjah Mada U in
Yogyakarta, Indonesia, passed away on September 25, 1997, after several
months' treatment for leukemia. He specialized in research and training
on issues of population and rural poverty and, in his distinguished career,
was one of only several internationally recognized Indonesian social scientists.
The dissertation for his 1966 PhD in anthropology (one of the first for
an Indonesian) at Australian National U was based upon a field study of
kinship and alliance among his own Karo Batak, and it became his first
book, published in 1975. Singarimbun then studied demography and remained
at the Research School for the Social Sciences at ANU until 1972, when
he returned to Gadjah Mada U (where he had been an undergraduate).
In 1973, Singarimbun founded the Population Studies Center at GMU,
where, with his wife Irawati, established the best social science library
in the country. The Center became one of the leading social research institutions
in Indonesia and hosted many visiting scholars. Singarimbun's own work,
and his collaboration in research and publication with some of them, contributed
greatly to the understanding of Indonesian demographics and Java's rural
poverty. He served as consultant to foreign donor agencies and the Indonesian
government, and his Center trained both social scientists working on population
and economic issues and family planning workers from all over the country.
Later in life and in retirement, he wrote socially and culturally insightful
newspaper pieces on contemporary problems in addition to academic publications.
Singarimbun's dedication and perseverance (in the face of sometimes
hostile economic and political situations), his openness and intellectual
curiosity and honesty (which sometimes led to conflict with government
over approaches to rural areas), and his infectious enthusiasm and smile
will be remembered by all who knew him. In 1996 ANU awarded him an honorary
doctorate, capping a career which was a model union of academic and public
service. (Clark E Cunningham)
SHARON STEPHENS, 46, Assistant Professor of Anthropology and Social
Work, U of Michigan, died in her Ann Arbor home on June 17, 1998. Born
in Walla Walla, WA, Stephens was both an undergraduate and graduate student
at the U of Chicago, where she received her PhD in anthropology (1984).
After teaching at Johns Hopkins U, she became an assistant professor of
anthropology at U of Chicago, where she taught 1987-93. Taking a position
at the Norwegian Centre for Child Research in Trondheim, Norway (1993),
Stephens subsequently joined the U of Michigan faculty (1995).
A foremost ethnographer of the northern Scandinavian Sami (Lapps),
Stephens devoted her early work to exploring the articulation of systemic
cultural transformations with historical transitions in Sami economic orders.
This mode of analysis was exemplified in her "Ideology and Everyday Life
in Sami (Lapp) History" (1986), which questioned the wisdom of making unmediated
connections between preconceived realms of material practice and ideological
structure. The occurrence of the Chernobyl reactor accident in April 1986
catastrophically transformed Sami life, however, and its aftereffects increasingly
compelled Stephens to participate in public intellectual life. While pursuing
a range of scholarly activities, she also wrote a series of articles on
Chernobyl and the Sami for publications such as Natural History, Not Man
Apart (Friends of the Earth), and Cultural Survival Quarterly; her engagement
with environmental issues intensified when she joined the Norwegian Centre
for Child Research in 1993. As Director of the Centre's International Children
and Environment Program, Stephens organized and facilitated a remarkable
number of major international conferences on children in a global context.
Many of these symposia focused on documenting the effects of radiation
on the lives of children throughout the world.
Stephens's scholarship broke completely new ground in what is still
the nascent field of the anthropology of children. Recognizing that children
constitute yet another realm of difference and marginality, Stephens devoted
her considerable political and intellectual energies to thinking about
children and the risks they both face and signify in the late 20th century.
Indeed, her edited volume Children and the Politics of Culture (1996) has
become the standard collection in this area, and her lengthy introductory
essay "Children and the Politics of Culture in 'Late Capitalism' " is exemplary
for its synthesizing vision and ever-thoughtful questioning of the categories--of
politics, culture, "the child" itself--that make up the received landscape
of social scientific work on children.
Stephens was continuing her important work on children at the U of
Michigan and was actively involved in a long-term research project on the
internationalization of child research. She was known by her students as
the most generous and caring of teachers. For all who knew Sharon Stephens,
her singular qualities of mind, extraordinary integrity and deep compassion
make her utterly irreplaceable.
Stephens is survived by her daughter Kaisa Talaga. Remembrances may
be made in her name to the Sharon Stephens Memorial Fund for Children,
Account #179-1455372, Washington Mutual, Silverlake Financial Ctr, 11014
19th Ave SE, Suite G, Everett, WA 98202-5121.
ELLIS R KERLEY 74, physical anthropologist, forensic anthropologist,
professor and administrator died September 3, 1998 of leukemia in San Diego.
Born in Covington, KY September 1, 1924, he was awarded the BS degree with
an emphasis on physical anthropology (1950) at U Kentucky. He received
his MS degree (1956) and PhD (1962) at U Michigan specializing in physical
anthropology, anatomy and human genetics and then studied orthopedic pathology
at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology in Washington, DC. Prior to
receiving his Masters' degree, Kerley served as Staff Anthropologist of
the Bowman Gray School of Medicine, North Carolina, participating in a
genetic, serologic and anthropometric survey of mountain communities. From
1954 to 1955 Kerley worked for the Department of the Army, Graves Registration,
Central Identification Laboratory in Kokura, Japan, identifying the deceased
from the Korean Conflict. His post-PhD positions included (in addition
to an association with the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology) teaching
and administrative positions at the universities of Kentucky (1965-66),
Kansas (1966-71), Maryland (1972-87) and Puerto Rico Medical School (1980-81).
In 1987, he shifted from his teaching career to serve as Forensic Anthropology
Consultant and Scientific Director of the United States Army Central Identification
Laboratory at Fort Shafter, HI until retirement in 1991.
Although his many publications and lectures cover the full range of
human skeletal biology, Kerley was best known for his many contributions
to forensic anthropology. In 1965 he pioneered an innovative technique
of determining age at death from human cortical bone utilizing microscopic
examination of histological features. The "Kerley technique" is still in
use today and has stimulated considerable additional related research.
Kerley was largely responsible for the formation in 1972 of the physical
anthropology section of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences and in
1977-78 of the American Board of Forensic Anthropology, Inc. Kerley served
as Chairman of the Physical Anthropology section for its first two years
and then again in 1975-76 and in 1980 was awarded that section's highest
honor for career service. He also served as the first President of the
American Board of Forensic Anthropology (1977-80), President of the Forensic
Sciences Foundation (1978-80) and held various high offices of the American
Academy of Forensic Sciences, becoming the only anthropologist to be elected
President of that organization (1990-91). He consulted on many forensic
cases, including the John F Kennedy assassination (1978), Josef Mengele
identification in Sao Paulo, Brazil (1985), study of the MOVE incident
victims in Philadelphia (1985), identification of the Challenger Astronauts
(1986), and the examination of victims of alleged Bosnian war crimes.
Ellis Kerley was widely regarded as an extremely knowledgeable physical
anthropologist, accomplished forensic anthropologist, a gifted teacher
and a warm and compassionate person. His impeccable reputation and many
accomplishments ensure him a prominent place in the history of forensic
anthropology. He is survived by his wife Mary Adams, and daughters, Mary
Elise Kerley, Laurelann Bundens and Amy Moorhouse. (Douglas H Ubelaker)
ALSO NOTED: LIBERTAD HERNANDEZ was assaulted and strangled by a taxi
driver in Mexico City on August 7, 1998. Born in Xalapa, Veracruz, Hernandez
earned her BA in anthropology from U Veracruzana. Shortly thereafter she
began working as Subdirector of the Social Service University System. She
created the Community Health Department in 1978 and the first state program
for Primary Health Attention in 1980. Hernandez also organized three educational
programs, Health Popular Participation, which were internationally recognized
and applauded. She became the University Extension Director at U Veracruzana
as well as a professor in Public Health. In 1992, Hernandez earned her
PhD from U Autonoma de Barcelona, Spain in psychology. During her tenure
as professor in the Psychological Research Institute at U Veracruzana,
she also held the directorship of the Programa Comunitario de la Mujer,
a government program for women.
SHEILA PATTERSON, 80, social anthropologist and pioneer of race relations
research, died June 21, 1998. Born Sheila Caffyn in 1918, Patterson earned
a diploma in anthropology (1951) and PhD in anthropology (1968) at the
London School of Economics. Following work as a translator and editor for
the Polish Ministry of Information during the war, she did research in
South Africa with Cape Colored people, in England with West Indian immigrants,
and in Barbados and St Vincent. For 16 years she also edited New Community,
the journal of the Community Relations Commission. Patterson's books include:
Dark Strangers (1963), Immigrants in Industry (1968) and Immigration and
Race Relations in Britain (1969). Although she took the name of her first
husband, Patterson later lived in Hove with her third husband, Tadeusz
DENISE PAULME, 89, leading French Africanist, died February 14, 1998.
A student of Mauss at the Institut d'Ethnologie, Paris, Paulme did fieldwork
among the Dogon in Mali before World War II. Appointed to head the Black
Africa department at the Musee de l'Homme, she carried out fieldwork in
Guinea with her husband, musicologist Andre Schaeffner. Her publications
include Les gens du riz, Une societe de Cote d'Ivoire hier et aujourd'hui,
Les Bete, and Femmes d'Afrique noire. Paulme was appointed head of the
Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, VIe Section (1958), and co-founded the
Centres des Etudes Africaines.
RICHARD GEORGE CONN, 69, Chief Curator and Native Arts Curator Emeritus
at the Denver Art Museum, died of a heart attack on July 14, 1998. Born
in Bellingham, WA, on October 28, 1928, Conn's childhood interest in Pacific
Northwest Indians grew into a lifelong passion for American Indian art
and culture and a career in museums. Conn earned BA (1950) and MA (1955)
degrees in anthropology at U of Washington, Seattle, and augmented his
academic interests with skills as a hobbyist and craftsman in beadwork
Conn's career was spent in museums educating the public about the artistic
achievements of American Indians, especially in the areas of the Plains
and Plateau. His museum service included positions at the Spokane Public
Museum (1951), the Denver Art Museum (1955-59), the Eastern Washington
State Historical Society, Spokane (curator and director, 1959-66), the
Manitoba Museum of Man and Nature (chief curator, 1966-69), the Heard Museum
(director, 1970-71), and the Denver Art Museum (Curator of Native Arts,
1972-90, and Chief Curator, 1990-1993). He was also adjunct curator of
Native American Art at the Lowe Art Museum, Miami. In retirement Conn taught
at several Denver universities and worked as an exhibit and collection
consultant. At the time of his death, he was guest curator at the New Orleans
Museum of Art for the exhibit: Tlanuwa's Heritage: A Millenium of Southeastern
Native American Art.
At the Denver Art Museum, Conn curated over 40 temporary exhibitions.
One of the best known, "Circles of the World," opened in Denver (1982)
and spent three years on a critically acclaimed tour of world museums.
His innovative "open" installation of the permanent American Indian Art
collection (1988) has been emulated by museums across the country.
Conn's publications include: Robes of White Shell and Sunrise (1974)
Native American Art in the Denver Art Museum (1978); Circles of the World:
Traditional Art of the Plains Indians (1982); A Persistent Vision: Art
of the Reservation Period (1986); Die Kultur der Indianer Nordamerikas
(1987); Les Indiens d'Amerique: Objets d'art et Objets du Quotidien (1987);
and American Indian Art from the Denver Art Museum (1990). Conn also mentored
two generations of younger scholars and trained those less knowledgeable
about the nuances of tailored clothing, half hitch coiling and Plateau
beadwork. In 1992 he returned a lost artistic tradition to the Houma Nation
(Louisiana) when they invited him to teach a rare basketry technique that
had been lost for several generations. The culmination of his career came
in 1994 when he was awarded the Governor's Award for Excellence in the
Arts in Colorado. Conn played several woodwind instruments and belonged
to a Renaissance music group. Friends and colleagues will remember him
for his passion for Native American art and unfailing gentlemanly wit and
The Native American Art Studies Association welcomes donations in memory
of Richard Conn for the support of scholarships. Contributions may be addressed
to: NAASA Scholarship Fund, c/o Bill Mercer, Treasurer, Portland Art Museum,
1219 SW Park Ave, Portland, OR 97205. (Nancy J Blomberg)
HUGH CARSON CUTLER, 86, died in Topeka, KS, September 22, 1998. Born
in Milwaukee, WI, September 8, 1912, Cutler employed flotation recovery
for his U of Wisconsin BA (1935) and MA (1936) in botany. His influence
inducing archaeologists to employ this technique is important in the history
of anthropology. He secured his PhD from Washington U (1939). Cutler's
shift into economic botany and archaeobotany began as early as his marriage
in 1940. He and his wife, Marian, spent their three-month honeymoon traveling
in the US SW, Mexico and Guatemala, where Cutler collected 300 cultivated
varieties of maize (including 900 year-old pueblo ruin specimens) and 60
wild varieties of tripsacum. This trip signaled his interest in archaeobotany
and career commitment to useful plants of the New World and their relatives;
studies related to the taxonomy of useful plants; research on the wild
relatives, variability and kinds grown by living people; and specimens
recovered from archaeological sites. From 1941-46, he conducted research
in Peru, Bolivia and Brazil. He had Guggenheim Fellowships to conduct research
on useful plants in Peru and Bolivia (when he also made ethnographic films)
and in 1943-45 he worked for the US Army Rubber Development Corporation,
flying in blimps over Amazonia identifying wild rubber tree groves. (He
later had other Guggenheim, Wenner-Gren and NSF grants to study maize,
cucurbits and ethnographic plant use.) From 1947-53 he was Curator of Economic
Botany (Field Museum); in 1953 he moved to the Missouri Botanical Garden
to take a similar position. During the 1950s he got more directly involved
with archaeologists, employing flotation techniques to extract plant remains
from excavations at Tularosa Cave and Higgins Flat pueblo excavations at
the Point of Pines (1951-53).
It was not until the mid-1960s that North American archaeologists heeded
his call to adopt this method. Best known are Stuart Struever, who says
Cutler taught him the technique when he came to visit his son at a Struever
excavation, and Patty Jo Watson, an undergraduate student on Haury's 1953
Cutler continued his position at MBG until retirement (1977). Initially
much time was taken up in administrative responsibilities, but later he
was able to devote more time to anthropological questions. Most of his
more than 150 publications focus on analyses of plants brought by archaeological
and ethnographic field workers. Cutler developed particular expertise in
the analysis of races of maize, squashes and gourds, although he identified
gratis all specimens submitted. He recruited local avocational archaeologists
to assist in these analyses. Cutler was generous in sharing credit in his
publications; thus one of these volunteers, Leonard W Blake, is listed
as co-author of a large number of analyses, including "Plants from Archaeological
Sites East of the Rockies," 1973. Cutler became Adjunct Professor of Anthropology
(1969), and began departmental instructions in paleoethnobotany. After
retirement, his archaeological specimen collection was sent to the Illinois
State Museum, and his 12,000 ear ethnographic maize collection was transferred
to the Agriculture Department of the U of Illinois. (David L Browman, with
Leonard Blake, William Cutler, Douglas Holland, Carole Prietto and Patty
JOHN LANGSTON GWALTNEY, 69, died in Reston, VA on August 29, 1998, after
a long illness. The final lines of his poem, Tested Assurance, instruct
us on how he wished his obituary to be framed: "Grudge not my rest. I do
but doze and when I wake again, I'll bring the rose." So much of his life
and work as an anthropologist, and a ritual carver centered on what he
called the "will of black people to preserve and celebrate our rich and
worthy way of being human." It is as if he were saying, just as a rose
by any other name is still a rose, black people by any name you may call
them are still practitioners of what it means to be human. Each of his
ritual carvings, like every rose, is a thing of beauty that symbolizes
more than eyes might see. Indeed, Gwaltney came into this world on September
25, 1928, unable to see. But his blindness never robbed him of a vision
of how the world could be if we ever managed to deal with the systems of
inequality that haunt us. His indomitable spirit, bountiful compassion,
and endless sense of humor were matched by an exceptional intellect and
unusual tenacity that allowed him to carry out fieldwork that would earn
him a place among those who have made lasting contributions to native anthropology
and the anthropology of African Americans.
Gwaltney received a BA from Upsala College (1952), MA from the New
School for Social Research (1957), and a doctorate in anthropology from
Columbia U (1967). He taught at the State U of New York at Cortland and
Syracuse U. A student of Margaret Mead, Gwaltney did his doctoral field
work among Chianantec-speaking people in Oaxaca, Mexico, in a village centrally
located in a zone where onchocerciasis (river blindness) struck large numbers
of the inhabitants. He reworked his dissertation into a book, The Thrice
Shy: Cultural Accommodation to Blindness, and Other Disasters in a Mexican
Community, that received the Ansley Dissertation Award. Drylongso: A Self
Portrait of Black America (1980) won honorable mention for the Robert F
Kennedy Book award. The Dissenters: Voices from Contemporary America (1986)
was a semi-finalist for the Kennedy Book award.
In 1989, the Association of Black Anthropologists chose Gwaltney to
receive its Distinguished Achievement award for extraordinary scholarship
and artistry. And it is this duality of scholarship and artistry that Gwaltney
himself captured when he declared that much of his work, even when it is
not ritual or sacred, is ritually inspired.
Gwaltney is survived by his wife Judy, a daughter Karen and a host
of other kin, colleagues and friends. Each of us will continue to be inspired
by the lessons he taught us--most importantly, the power of the human spirit
to soar above adversities.
Contributions in his memory may be made to the John Langston Gwaltney
Native Anthropology Scholarship, c/o Association of Black Anthropologists,
Key Bank, 95 E Sherman St, Lebanon, OR 97355 (Johnnetta B Cole)
ALDEN C HAYES, 82, anthropologist, rancher and adventurer, died in Portal,
AZ, August 23, 1998. Born on January 11, 1916 in Englewood, NJ, Hayes initially
leaned towards a forestry career. Following a chance meeting with anthropologist
Edgar L Hewett, he enrolled at U of New Mexico in anthropology (1935),
where he graduated with a BA (1939). Hayes married fellow anthropology
student, Gretchen Chapin, in 1941, a partnership that lasted until Gretchen's
death (1982). They had sons, Eric and Marc, and two grandsons.
In 1936-37, Hayes and friends made a 5-month, 2000-mile canoe trip
down the Mackenzie River (Down North to the Sea, 1989) looking for early
archaeological sites supporting the speculation regarding humans crossing
the Bering Straits. Hayes also assisted ethnologist Anne M Smith in her
research of the Utes, Goshuites and Shoshones of Nevada and Utah (Shoshone
In World War II and the Korean War, Hayes served as a medical supply
officer with the 11th Airborne, rising to Lt Colonel. During 1940-56 he
had turned to ranching in Cochise County, Arizona, and part-time work with
the US Forest Service as a smoke chaser. But drought drove him to the National
Park Service for a paying job, where he worked until retirement (1976).
Hayes became a well-known field hand and an authority on Southwestern prehistory.
He started in 1957 as a ranger-archaeologist at Casa Grande Ruins, then
became supervisory archaeologist on the Wetherill Mesa Project, Mesa Verde
National Park (1958-65). His The Archeological Survey of Wetherill Mesa
(1964) still stands as an exemplary report. Working with Al Lancaster,
Hayes published their work of a long-lived puebloan site (The Badger House
Transferred to the Southwest Archaeological Center, Hayes excavated
Las Humanas (Gran Quivira) in New Mexico (1965-68), a task that revealed
kiva murals and considerable information on the Spanish and Indian contact
period (The Excavation of Mound 7, 1981). This was followed by extensive
work at Pecos National Monument, New Mexico (The Four Churches of Pecos,
In 1971 Hayes joined the Chaco Project. Under his guiding hand, a cultural
resource inventory was completed providing an unparalleled look at the
human development of Chaco Canyon (Archeological Surveys of Chaco Canyon,
After retirement Hayes began a long association with the Crow Canyon
Archaeological Center, and served on its Board of Directors. While on safari
in Africa, he met Karen Chalker, whom he married in 1984, acquiring two
stepdaughters, Kirsten and Kari.
Hayes' final work on the history of the Chiricahua Mountains of southeastern
Arizona (A Portal to Paradise), is due for publication in 1999.
Hayes was a gentleman and scholar of quietly insightful humor. He helped
shape the careers of many archaeologists, yet was lenient and flexible
in a bureaucracy often less so. He was honored by the New Mexico Archaeological
Society (Prehistory and History in the Southwest: Collected Papers in Honor
of Alden C Hayes, 1985).
The Alden C Hayes Research Fund at Crow Canyon Archaeological Center
(23390 County Road K, Cotez, CO, 81321) has been established to commemorate
his work. (Thomas C Windes, Karen Hayes. Photo by Karen Hayes)
WILLIAM A SMALLEY, 75, died on in New Haven, CT. He had lived in Hamden,
CT. The headline in the New York Times obituary (December, 26 1997) proclaimed
his major contribution, "Linguist for the Hmong." Together with Catholic
priest Yves Bertrais and fellow missionary-anthropologist Linwood Barney,
Smalley developed a Latin orthography for the Hmong language. Today this
written form appears, among other places, on Hmong websites on the Internet
and, more broadly, it is used by the approximately 200,000 Hmong from Laos
who settled in the US after the Indochina War. Thus while most anthropologists
are memorialized for their work within the profession, Smalley's career
followed a path. Its major focus was defined by his parents who were missionaries
in Jerusalem and where he was born in 1923. He received his undergraduate
degree from Houghton College and doctorate in anthropological linguistics
from Columbia U (1955). Smalley then worked for the American Bible Society.
In 1978 he joined the faculty of Bethel College, St Paul, MN, where he
served as a professor of linguistics, retiring 10 years later. His doctoral
work was on the Kammu language spoken in the area of Luang Prabang in northern
Laos, where he was associated with the Christian and Missionary Alliance.
His dissertation was published as a monograph by the American Oriental
Smalley's fieldwork began in 1948-49 with research on Comanche phonology
and morphology. Additionally, from 1950-54, he worked in Vietnam and Laos
on the Vietnamese and Sre languages, and began his lifelong work on Hmong.
From 1955-1972 he was a translations consultant in Haiti and Africa, continuing
this work while resident in Thailand. In 1955 he helped found and edited
the journal, Practical Anthropology, which was designed to provide anthropological
perspectives to missionary work. Of more general interest to anthropologists
was his, Mother of Writing, The Origin and Development of a Hmong Messianic
Script (1990), which he wrote with Hmong colleagues. His last book was
Linguistic Diversity and National Unity, Language Ecology in Thailand (1994).
He also co-authored, again with Hmong colleagues, the monograph, The Life
of Shong Lue Yang: Hmong "Mother of Writing," for the Center for Urban
and Regional Affairs (U Minnesota). To further his research and publication
in the 1980s Smalley received a number of grants from NEH as well as from
the SSRC/ACLS sub-committee on Indochina Studies. He was generous in sharing
his field notes and helped this writer, who succeeded him in researching
the Luang Prabang area in the mid 1950s. His linguistic texts provided
a unique emic perspective on Kammu culture. Overall he wrote more than
120 articles, books and monographs on linguistics, writing systems, translation,
missions, applied linguistics, applied anthropology and cross-cultural
communication, a significant portion of it growing out of his Southeast
In addition to his wife Jane, Smalley is survived by sons William Jr
and Stephen, daughter Carol Jane, and 4 grandchildren. (Joel M Halpern)
ROSALIE HANKEY WAX, 87, died 4 November 1998, in St Louis, MO. Born
1911 in a German Lutheran community, DesPlaines, IL, she had an erratic
childhood, learning to read and cultivating her voice and musicianship,
but never completing school. As the oldest child, and female, she assumed
responsibility for her siblings during familial crises and the Great Depression.
Only after the siblings had been satisfactorily situated in institutions
of higher education, did she begin formal schooling. Her abilities were
quickly recognized and with the assistance of a Phoebe Hearst scholarship,
she enrolled in U of California, Berkeley, where she was inspired by Alfred
Kroeber and Robert Lowie and earned her BA.
During World War II, when Japanese Americans were incarcerated in concentration
camps, Wax became a researcher for the U of California Evacuation and Resettlement
Project. She conducted fieldwork at Gila, and then at Tule Lake, where
those who had "declared themselves disloyal" were interned. The situation
was fraught, and she had troubles locally and with the head of the project.
Eventually, the Department of Interior expelled her from Tule Lake on the
grounds that she had transmitted information to the Department of Justice.
On Kroeber's recommendation, Wax undertook graduate study at U of Chicago
and wrote her doctoral dissertation and several journal articles on the
events at Tule Lake. Meanwhile, she was recruited to the social science
program in The College: becoming one of its charismatic teachers, ultimately
serving as Chair, Social Science II. The Dean of the College promised promotion
and tenure, but with a new university administration, these promises were
abrogated on the grounds that, being a women with a salary-earning spouse,
she did not need the faculty position.
Wax and her husband, Murray Wax, were then recruited by Sol Tax to
direct summer Workshops for American Indian college students, and thus
was launched a career concentration on Indians and schools. In particular,
Wax participated in fieldwork among the Oglala Sioux, Oklahoma Cherokee
and Minnesota Chippewa. findings of the work among the Sioux were highly
influential: Formal Education in an American Indian Community (1964), initially
published by the Society for the Study of Social Problems, was reprinted
in the Congressional Record with enthusiastic responses from their hosts,
Wax's research experiences were always conducted under political and
legal difficulties, and so she was impelled to write Doing Fieldwork: Warnings
and Advice (1971)--one of the earliest reflexive accounts of anthropological
fieldwork. The frankness of the narratives made it the funniest book in
When fieldwork was difficult because of university responsibilities,
Wax began intensive study of Old Scandinavian languages and literatures.
The major outcome was Magic, Fate, & History: The Changing Ethos of
the Vikings (1969).
After further vicissitudes Wax served as professor, U of Kansas, Lawrence,
then at Washington U, St Louis. The staff of the nursing home where she
had been for 7 years reported that on her birthday, November 4, she started
to sing, then lay down on her bed and passed peacefully away. (Murray L