MISCELLANEOUS OBITUARIES
of
ANTHROPOLOGISTS


MARY FUKUMOTO, 47, a Peruvian anthropologist, died in January 1998, after a brief illness. Born in 1950, Fukumoto took her undergraduate and masters degrees at San Marcos and Catholic universities in Lima, and received her PhD at the U of Texas in Austin. She taught in the Department of Anthropology at Catholic U in Lima for several years and served as its head for a portion of that time. During the last 10 years she worked at the Nutrition Institute in Lima, although she still continued to teach at Catholic U. Of Japanese origin, Fukumoto studied the Japanese Peruvian community and published a widely acclaimed book on Japanese Peruvians, Los hijos del nuevo sol. Admired for her decency and fair dealings, Fukumoto will be sorely missed by her friends and colleagues. (Teofilo Altamirano and William P Mitchell) 

MARCUS S GOLDSTEIN, 91, one of the forefathers of dental anthropology and a public health analyst, died December 1, 1997, in Jerusalem, Israel. Born on August 22, 1906, in Philadelphia, PA, Goldstein received his BA and MA in anthropology from George Washington U and his PhD from Columbia. Goldstein's professional career in anthropology began in 1927, when he obtained a position as aide to Ales Hrdlicka in the US National Museum Division of Physical Anthropology. It was only halted by his death 70 years later. An active researcher in anthropology, Goldstein typified the "compleat anthropologist" with a broad knowledge of and interest in most areas of anthropological interest. His publications include a number of key works on dental variation and pathology, growth, development and aging, and skeletal pathology in past populations of Israel. His professional activities can be divided into two main periods. During World War II, Goldstein worked in the US Office of Strategic Services, and in 1946 he joined the US Public Health Service as an analyst. His government career included posts at the Division of Public Health Methods, National Institutes of Mental Health Administration on Aging and the Office of Research and Statistics in the Social Security Administration, from which he retired in 1971. As an anthropologist in the Public Health Service in the US, Goldstein focused his research on factors adversely affecting growth and development.
Following his retirement, Goldstein and his wife Lea immigrated to Israel, where he joined Tel Aviv U and played an important role in developing research in the newly formed Department of Anatomy and Anthropology. Goldstein was also responsible for founding the Israel Association of Anthropology, which now has well over 150 members, and he brought together scientists from archaeology, biological and social anthropology--no easy task in a country where the three disciplines are taught in separate faculties. In 1987 he was honored with that Association's Distinguished Service Award.
Goldstein's major publications include "The Cusps in the Mandibular Molar Teeth of the Eskimo," American Journal of Physical Anthropology (1931, 16); Demographic and Bodily Changes in Descendants of Mexican Immigrants with Comparable Data on Parents and Children in Mexico (1943); "Physical Status of Men Examined through Selective Service in World War II," Public Health Reports (1951, 66); "Some Vital Statistics Based on Skeletal Material," Human Biology (1953, 25); "Longevity and Health Status of Whites and Nonwhites in the United States," Journal of the National Medical Association (1954, 46); and "Theory of Survival of the Unfit," Journal of the National Medical Association (1955, 47).
Goldstein summed up his career in the monograph An Odyssey in Anthropology and Public Health (1995). In it he gives a warm portrayal of all who helped him: subjects, as well as colleagues. The writing is characterized by modesty and a sense of humor, qualities that all who knew him will recognize. With over a 100 scientific publications and a powerful commitment throughout his life to apply anthropology for the public good, Marcus Goldstein may surely rest in peace: he did make a difference. (Patricia Smith)

HOMER F HASTINGS, 89, retired Superintendent of Aztec National Monument and Chaco Culture National Historic Park, passed away at his home in Aztec, NM, on January 23, 1998. 
Born in Montrose, CO, on October 18, 1908, Hastings attended Fort Lewis College and Western State College, where he received degrees in biology and archaeology. He left teaching school in Klein and Bayfield, CO, to become a National Park Service park ranger. His first assignments were to Aztec Ruins National Monument and Chaco Cultural Historical Park, both in New Mexico, followed by Montezuma Castle and Walnut Canyon National monuments in Arizona and Fort Union National Monument in New Mexico. Hastings eventually became a superintendent of all these areas.
In Chaco Canyon, Hastings was involved in measurement studies of Threatening Rock, before it fell, jumping onto the rock twice a day to determine the effect of temperature on the movement of the rock. During his early years at Fort Union, he supervised the cataloging of all artifacts recovered during excavation and supervised stabilization of the remaining adobe walls. He retired from the National Park Service in 1971.
Hastings was an avid collector of antique cameras, eventually donating his collection to Fort Lewis College in Durango. He was also one of the charter members of the San Juan Archaeological Society in Aztec.
Hastings is survived by his wife Mary C, daughters Mary J Harris and Anita Lewis, plus 12 grandchildren, 22 great-grandchildren and 20 great-great-grandchildren. (Mary C Hastings)

BELA CHARLES MADAY, 85, a distinguished anthropologist and administrator, died in Gaithersburg, MD on November 21, 1997.
Maday was born in Prague, Austro-Hungarian Empire, November 3, 1912, and received his doctorate from Pazmany U in Hungary (1937). From 1937 to 1945 he was secretary of the Budapest Cultural Department. After WWII he served as field director of the Red Cross in Hungary. Maday came to the US in 1947 on a postdoctoral fellowship from Springfield C (MA) and then joined the faculty at Monterey Peninsula C and the Monterey Language Institute, where he wrote and edited an extensive series of Hungarian language texts. In 1956, as executive director of Coordinated Hungarian Relief in Washington DC, he organized US efforts to aid Hungarian refugees. From 1959 to 1966 he taught at American U and George Washington U and in 1966 was appointed executive secretary of the Cultural Anthropology Fellowship Review Committee and later chief of the Research Training Branch of the National Institute of Mental Health. He retired in 1977.
Along with his career in administration, Maday was deeply involved in teaching, research and writing. He was founding editor of the Hungarian Studies Newsletter and the Hungarian Reference Shelf and published numerous articles and books on eastern Europe and Hungarian society. He contributed to a wide variety of anthropological fields, including work on acculturation, cognitive studies, comparative studies of society and culture, and applied and medical anthropology.
Many anthropologists came to know Maday when they served as members of the Cultural Anthropology Review Committee, which for over a decade was the major source of dissertation fieldwork funds in American anthropology. As executive secretary, Maday was a genial host to committee members and a warm assistant to fellowship recipients. An idealist who also functioned with great effectiveness within government bureaucracies, he was an enthusiast about the humanitarian and democratic character of American society. Maday believed that government can do much good with programs designed and carried out with knowledge and goodwill. And in his life he accomplished exactly that with energy, cheer and skill. Maday's wife of 57 years, Maria, died in 1987. He is survived by their children, Kathryn Maday-Bloom and Steven, 5 grandchildren and two great-grandchildren. (Roy D'Andrade and Lorand Szalay) 

MOREAU SANFORD (MAX) MAXWELL, 80, emeritus professor and curator of anthropology at Michigan State U, died January 30, 1998, after a short struggle with cancer. Born in 1918, Maxwell was an intrepid field archaeologist and consummate teacher whose legacy remains indelibly imprinted on all who knew him. 
Maxwell's archaeological career was fostered by the New York Archaeological Society. He matriculated at the U of Chicago, where he received his AB (1939), MA (1946) and PhD (1949). His Works Project Administration fieldwork in Illinois was interrupted by World War II, when he served as a US Navy pilot in the Pacific as lieutenant (jg). He then joined the faculty at Beloit C, excavating at the Diamond Bluff and Aztalan sites. 
Maxwell worked for the US Air Force Arctic, Desert, Tropical Information Center (1952-57), where his effort was primarily devoted to Arctic projects. He engaged in Defense Early Warning system siting as a member of the US Air Force Eclipse Project and as assistant project officer of the DEW Line Ice Survey Team. He traveled with Inuit guides, by dogsled, assessing ice at landing strip locations for DEW Line construction and observed archaeological evidence of pre-Dorset and Dorset occupation in the high Arctic. 
In 1957 Maxwell joined the Department of Sociology and Anthropology and the Museum at Michigan State U, was the first curator of anthropology and was the first chair of the independent Department of Anthropology. Maxwell's Arctic research began in 1958. As a member of a Defense Research Board group participating in Canada's International Geophysical Year, he surveyed the Lake Hazen vicinity on Ellesmere Island. He then spent over 15 seasons in the Arctic applying ecological and ethnoarchaeological approaches to the prehistory of Baffin Island and received a Fulbright fellowship to the National Museum of Denmark. He subsequently emerged as a dominant synthesizer of eastern Arctic archaeology. Maxwell also periodically returned to midwestern research at Fort Michilimackinac and other sites, pioneering anthropologically oriented historical archaeology. 
Maxwell's career led to several significant publications, including Woodland Cultures of Southern Illinois (1951), an edited SAA Memoir (1976), a review for Annual Review of Anthropology (1980), Excavation at Fort Michilimackinac, Mackinac City, Michigan, 1959 Season (with L Binford, 1961) and Prehistory of the Eastern Arctic (1985). 
Maxwell's achievements earned him the MSU Distinguished Faculty Award and an SAA award for Outstanding Contributions to American archaeology. On his retirement in 1986, the Department of Anthropology implemented a graduate student research competition in his name. In retirement he continued to read proposals, review articles and correspond with colleagues and new generations of students. He also continued his lifelong friendships with the Inuit with whom he worked and whom he respected. 
Maxwell is survived by Eleanor, his wife of 54 years, children Moreau Jr, Alan, John and Tia, and 4 grandchildren. He will be missed by all who knew him. The Department of Anthropology has established the Moreau S Maxwell Memorial Lecture Series in his memory. Donations should be made to Michigan State U and mailed to the Department of Anthropology. (William A Lovis) 

ALFONSO VILLA ROJAS, 91, investigator at the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, died in Mexico City on January 5, 1998. Born in Merida, Yucatan on January 31, 1906, Villa Rojas enjoyed a long and distinguished career in Mexico, becoming renowned for his contribution to the ethnography of the Mexican tropics, especially of the Mayas of Quintana Roo and Chiapas. He was a rural schoolteacher in Chan Kom, Yucatan, when he began his ethnographic career, associating himself with Robert Redfield in the study of Chan Kom and the exploration of the Yaxuna-Coba sacbeh. Carnegie Institution of Washington publications resulting from both labors gave Villa Rojas early international recognition. While a student of anthropology at the U of Chicago (1933-35), Villa Rojas came to know Radcliffe-Brown and Malinowski, both of whom strongly influenced his professional development. Villa Rojas then returned to the Yucatan peninsula to begin fieldwork in Tuzik, one of the communities that contributed to Redfield's formulation of the folk-urban continuum. The ethnography of that semiautonomous community of former Maya rebels long remained a classic work of contemporary ethnography, and Villa Rojas's field experiences were described in detail in Paul Sullivan's Unfinished Conversations: Mayas and Foreigners between Two Wars (1991). 
Villa Rojas subsequently assumed various official positions and dedicated himself to applying anthropological insights to the betterment of the social conditions of the indigenous peoples of Mexico. He directed a major impact ethnography of Indians affected by the construction of a hydroelectric dam across the Papaloapan River (1949-52). He assumed directorship of the Indigenist Coordinator Center for the Tzeltal-Tzotzil region of Chiapas in 1955. He was director of anthropological investigations of the International Indigenist Institute (1967-70) and subdirector of the National Indigenist Institute of Mexico (1970-76). In 1979 he became an investigator at the Institute of Anthropological Investigations of the Universidad Nacional Autonoma of Mexico and a member of the National System of Investigators in Mexico in 1985. While his failing health eventually required his withdrawal from active labors, he remained recognized as a distinguished investigator of UNAM until his death. 
Among Villa Rojas's most distinguished publications are The Yaxuna-Coba Causeway (1934), Chan Kom: A Maya Village (with Robert Redfield, 1932), The Maya of East-Central Quintana Roo (1945), Los Mazatecos y el problema indigena de la cuenca del Papalopan (1955) and chapters on the Mayas of the Yucatan peninsula and of the lowlands of Mexico in the Handbook of Middle American Indians, vol 7 (1969), while many of his contributions to the ethnography of Chiapas were collected and republished in 1985 as Estudios etnologicos: Los mayas (UNAM-IIA). Villa Rojas is survived by wife Dolores (Loly) Gomez Izquierdo, the same who shared with him the adventures and hardships of fieldwork in the forests of Quintana Roo half a century ago. 

FREDERICK J DOCKSTADER, 79, author and scholar of Native American art and culture, died of lymphoma in New York City on March 21, 1998. Born in Los Angeles, CA, Dockstader received his BA and MA from Arizona State College, Flagstaff (1940, 1941) and his PhD from Western Reserve U (1951). On the staff of Cranbrook Institute of Science (1946-52), he designed and installed many of its ethnological exhibits while pursuing research in the American Indian field. From graduate study with the Hopi came his The Kachina and the White Man (1954, 1985). While at Cranbrook, he met and married Alice Elizabeth Warren.
Dockstader joined Dartmouth College faculty in 1952, serving as the college museum's curator of anthropology. In 1955 he became assistant director of the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation, in New York City, and was director from 1960 to 1975. Although he left the museum during a furor over deaccessioning practices, it was never demonstrated that he benefited personally from any of these exchanges. Dockstader liked to point out that many of the objects acquired during his tenure were highlighted in exhibitions mounted by his successors. The uproar caused by problems at the Museum of the American Indian encouraged many other cultural institutions to reexamine their acquisition and deaccessioning policies.
While at the museum, Dockstader began to write the series of books on Native American art for which he became well-known. Indian Art in America (1962) was followed by Indian Art in Middle America (1964) and Indian Art in South America (1967), completing one of the first comprehensive surveys of aboriginal art in the Americas. These publications, along with Indian Art of the Americas (1973), showcased the remarkable, but relatively unpublished, collections of the museum. During his years at the museum, Dockstader, a prize-winning silversmith, served as a commissioner of the Indian Arts and Craft Board of the US Department of the Interior. He chaired that body from 1962 to 1967. He also was an adjunct professor in Columbia U's department of art and archaeology. He was appointed a trustee of the museum's Huntington Free Library in 1969 and served in that position until his death.
In the years that followed his tenure at the Museum of the American Indian, Dockstader worked in the field of Native American art. He catalogued numerous private collections of Indian artifacts, mounted several museum exhibitions and was adjunct professor of art at Arizona State U. He was awarded honorary doctorates from Hartwick College (1991) and U of South Dakota (1992). He continued to publish. Great North American Indians: Profiles in Life and Leadership (1977) remains a basic reference work. Song of the Loom: New Traditions in Navajo Weaving (1987), a catalog of a Montclair Art Museum exhibit, won a "Wrangler" award from the Cowboy Hall of Fame (1988). When he died, he had just completed the manuscript for a "Dictionary of American Indian Art." Those who knew Fred Dockstader will remember him for his ebullient spirit and dedication to the field of American Indian studies. (Mary B Davis)

JULIAN DODGE HAYDEN, 87, an authority on the archaeology of the Sonoran Desert, died at his home in Tucson, AZ, March 6, 1998, following a battle with emphysema. He was born January 10, 1911, in Hamilton, Missouri.
Hayden's early interest in archaeology was stimulated by his father Irwin. When Hayden graduated from Riverside High School, CA (1927), he began to get field experience accompanying his father on archaeological projects.
Hayden's 1935 Snaketown dig was the beginning of his long association with Emil W Haury. While there, he recorded a Pima creation narrative and the last performances of the O'odham Vikita ceremony, contributing significantly to ethnography of the region. There Hayden met Helen Pendleton. They were married in 1935 and had 4 children: Julian Jr, Mary (Hermans), Serena (Camacho) and Stephen.
Hayden was employed at the Pueblo Grande Ruin in Phoenix (1936-40), with trips to record Pima pottery making. While there he developed skills as a silversmith, producing jewelry based on Hohokam and Aztec motifs. In 1938 he worked briefly with Malcolm Rogers at the C W Harris site, the type site for Rogers's San Dieguito III complex. Hayden excavated the University Indian Ruin in Tucson (1940). He supervised excavation at Ventana Cave for Haury (1942) and participated in Haury's 1964-65 re-excavation of Snaketown, contributing innovative use of the backhoe for exploratory purposes.
During World War II, Hayden was a civilian employee of the US Army Engineers. In 1945 he moved to Tucson and established the Hayden Excavation Service (offering top soil, sewage disposal systems and precast septic tanks and manholes). From 1956-78 he published a weekly advertisement in Tucson newspapers, "Hayden Says," in which he promoted his business and commented on topics that delighted and infuriated readers. He often featured archaeological events and ideas, making an important contribution to the popularization of archaeology in southern Arizona.
Hayden systematically explored the entire Pinacate range. His observations of differential desert varnish on tools found in the desert pavement led him to define and defend the Malpais culture occupation of the Pinacate and Sonoran Desert during the Pleistocene.
Hayden was a rugged individual and could have been the model for A V Kidder's "hairy-chested archaeologist." He was a gentle, gracious, generous and caring person with a tremendous sense of humor, deep respect for others and willingness to share his knowledge and research. Although he attended junior college, he had no academic training in archaeology. He received the Crabtree Award for Avocational Archaeology from the Society for American Archaeology (1988). The Arizona Archaeological and Historical Society honored him with its Cummings Award for Outstanding Research (1987) and he served as vice-president (1960-61), president (1961-65) and editor of the Society's journal Kiva (1970-71). Although he held an honorary position as research associate in the Arizona State Museum, he was by choice an independent scholar.
The current issue of the Journal of the Southwest is dedicated to Hayden. He did not live to see publication of his The Sierra Pinacate, scheduled to appear this summer, but it will stand as a lasting reminder of his determination to discover the prehistoric people who occupied that largely unknown desert region.

LEWIS LEON KLEIN, 59, anthropologist, primate ethologist, environmental and community activist, died August 15, 1997, in a San Francisco hospital, of complications following heart surgery.
Klein was born in New York, where he earned his undergraduate degree in sociology and English. He received his doctorate in anthropology from UC-Berkeley in 1972 for his dissertation on the ecology and social organization of the spider monkey (Ateles belzebuth), based on his research in a remote location in Colombia.
Klein was a pioneer ethologist whose scope and vision encompassed evolutionary biology, animal behavior and anthropology. His energy and enthusiasm were fueled by his boundless intellect and uncanny perceptive ability. He was an exuberant teacher who could grasp an essential idea or make innovative connections with a facility bewildering to those around him. His original contributions to the study of New World primates and socioecology helped set the standard that others hoped to follow, and his accomplishments have stood the test of time. For example, publications by Klein and his wife Dorothy on social and ecological contrasts among 4 taxa of Neotropical primates, and the feeding behavior of Colombian spider monkeys were mentioned favorably in the late Warren Kinzey's summary article "New World Primate Studies" in the History of Physical Anthropology: An Encyclopedia, vol 2, 1997. Klein moved to McKinleyville in northern California in 1982, where he increasingly became dedicated to preserving the environmental quality of the community he encountered there. He was an active member of the conservation committee of the Redwood Region chapter of the Audubon Society and served as its treasurer and delegate to the Northcoast Environmental Center. He was instrumental in making Humboldt County comply with general land-management policies and state regulations affecting North Coast rivers and streams. Klein was an elected director of the McKinleyville Community Services District, and a founding director of the McKinleyville Land Trust. He strove constantly to protect environmental resources and public interests in the face of land development and suburban growth. At the time of his death, Klein was studying law through correspondence courses to protect the environment more effectively.
Klein's intellectual honesty was refreshing, and his environmental stewardship was compelling. His tireless dedication, critical wit and humble awe of nature were a shining beacon that touched and inspired professional colleagues and community members alike. Klein is survived by his wife Dorothy and son Sorel.
Thank you, Lewis, for that glow which, to this day, helps illuminate my life. Dorothy Klein has set up the Lewis Klein Memorial Fund at Humboldt Bank, 2095 Central Ave, McKinleyville, CA 95519, to promote local environmental awareness. (Based on an obituary in Times-Standard, August 17, 1997, and a tribute by Chad Roberts in Econews, September, 1997. Robert D Rondinelli)

YEDIDA KALFON STILLMAN, 51, died on February 22, 1998, after a valiant 10-month struggle against cancer. She was professor of history, Near Eastern languages and women's studies at the U of Oklahoma since 1995. Stillman was world's acknowledged expert on the history of the clothing of the Arab world, both Muslim and Jewish, from medieval to modern times and did extensive research on Sephardi and Oriental Jewish ethnography.
Born in Morocco and raised in Israel, Stillman did her undergraduate studies in folk literature at the Hebrew U and was a researcher at the Ethnographic Department of the Israel Museum and for the Israel Folklore Archives. In 1967 she came to the US to marry Norman A Stillman, who became her lifelong partner and scholarly collaborator. She earned her MA in folklore and folklife (1968) and completed her doctorate in Oriental studies at the U of Pennsylvania (1972), with a dissertation on medieval Egyptian female attire from the trousseau lists of the Cairo Geniza.
Even before obtaining her first academic position at Binghamton U of the State U of New York, Stillman was engaged by the Museum of International Folk Art and the International Folk Art Foundation of Santa Fe, NM, to prepare a major study on its collection of Palestinian costume and jewelry, which resulted in a major exhibition and a book (1979) subvented by the National Endowment for the Arts. In subsequent years, she held guest curatorial and consulting positions at the Smithsonian Institution, Jewish Museum in New York, Jewish Museum of Greece, Joods Historische Museum of Amsterdam, Museum of the Diaspora in Tel Aviv and many others. She was on the boards of several international organizations and learned societies, including the International Society for Judeo-Arabic Studies and Centre de Recherche sur les Juifs du Maroc. Over the years Stillman was highly successful at obtaining grants for her research from such agencies and foundations as the National Endowment for the Humanities, Littauer Foundation, American Philosophical Society, American Research Center in Egypt, Institute of Turkish Studies, Ben-Zvi Institute in Jerusalem and the Bradley Foundation, which for the past 8 years was the principal ongoing supporter of her life's work on Middle Eastern and North African costume history. In 1994-95, Stillman was senior Fulbright research scholar at Muhammad V U, in Rabat, Morocco, where she conducted a study on Moroccan women and modernity.
In addition to 5 published books (2 in collaboration with her husband), Stillman was the author of numerous scholarly articles, encyclopedia entries, journalistic articles and reviews in several languages. Two major books were in progress at the time of her death: a history of Arab dress and an encyclopedic dictionary of Arab clothing.
Stillman's contribution as a teacher was no less important than her scholarship. In 1978 she was honored with the SUNY Chancellor's Award for Excellence in Teaching. Many of her students, who always knew her simply as Yedida, became lifelong friends. (Norman A Stillman)

CLAUDIO VILLAS BOAS, 82, frontiersman and indigenist, died March 1, 1998, in Sao Paulo, Brazil, far from the scenes of his and his brothers' triumphs and tragedies. For more than 20 years, from the mid-1940s until the late 1960s, Claudio, Orlando and (until his early death) Leonardo Villas Boas sought to protect Brazilian Indians from the onslaught of ranchers, farmers, loggers, miners and developers who were opening up Brazil's interior. Ironically, the Villas Boas brothers had played a crucial role in making Brazil's Amazonian heartland more accessible to outsiders.
In 1943, as young men, the brothers participated in a government expedition to the Roncador/Xingu region in central Brazil. The expedition was part of a "March to the West" promoted by Brazil's dictator, Getulio Vargas. In the interior they made contact with many indigenous groups whose existence was threatened by the expansion of Brazilian society.
From then on, the Villas Boas brothers became the principal defenders of Brazil's Amazonian Indians. After years of lobbying, in 1961 they succeeded in convincing the Brazilian government to establish the Xingu Indigenous Park, a 10,000-square-mile area in the state of Mato Grosso. Eighteen peoples moved into the park, where 17 of them still live in harmony. (The 18th group, the Panar, also known as the Kreenakrore, have moved back to part of their ancestral territory, northwest of the Xingu Park.) For years the Villas Boas brothers ran the park, but more recently an indigenous director has administered it. Today the Xingu Park is completely surrounded by Brazilian settlements, ranches and development projects.
In 1966 the brothers helped create FUNAI, the National Indian Foundation, successor to the government's corrupt and ineffectual Indian Protection Service. Later, their rescue and forced relocation of the Panar to Xingu Park had mixed results. This action may have saved the group from extinction, but the Panar were never happy in the park and returned to their homeland as soon as they could, in the mid-1990s.
Apparently disillusioned as Brazilian encroachment on indigenous lands continued, Claudio and Orlando Villas Boas left the forest in the mid-1970s and retired to Sao Paulo. At a farewell news conference in 1973, Claudio lamented, "All the pacified Indians slowly lose their characteristics and authenticity and their culture is corrupted through contact with civilized outsiders. Once pacified, they stop being free."
Many anthropologists might cavil with Claudio's pessimistic assessment, the product of old-fashioned Rousseauian romanticism. But no one can doubt the significance of the Villas Boas brothers' work to preserve indigenous peoples' physical and cultural integrity in the Xingu Park, their most important monument. (Linda Rabben)

ALSO NOTED: BILL REID, 78, recognized as North America's greatest aboriginal artist, died March 13, 1998, in Canada after a 30-year battle with Parkinson's disease. Best known for his great bronze sculpture "The Spirit of Haida Gawaii," Reid also carved the yellow cedar sculpture "The Raven and First Men," the bronze "The Killer Whale" and "Lootas," a 60-foot war canoe. Recipient of 9 honorary degrees from Canadian universities and honored by numerous awards, Reid exhibited his work throughout the world. He also coauthored, with Bill Holm, Indian Art of the Northwest Coast: A Dialogue on Craftsmanship And Aestheitcs. Reid is survived by his wife Martine, daughter Amanda Reid-Stevens and 4 grandchildren.

GEORGE S LEWIS, an avocational archaeologist from Augusta, GA, died in December 1997. He was president of the South Carolina and Georgia state archaeological societies and received the highest awards each society had to offer (Caldwell Lifetime Service Award, Stephenson Lifetime Service Award), plus a great many lesser honors (eg, twice winner of the South Carolina Archaeologist of the Year).

CARLETON PUTNAM, 96, former chairman of Delta Air Lines and outspoken opponent of racial integration, died March 5, 1998, in Charlottesville, VA. Putnam embarked on a campaign to fight integration at the time of Brown vs Board of Education, the 1954 Supreme Court decision that outlawed school segregation. He wrote a reply to a Life magazine editorial supporting the decision, which was published in the Richmond Times-Democrat. Within weeks, the "Putnam letter," as it became known, had been published in newspapers all over the South, creating a huge demand for reprints and drawing thousands of letters of support, which he used as the basis for Race and Reason, A Yankee View (1961). Seeing the 1954 decision as a result of an insidious campaign for "equalitarianism" by anthropologist Franz Boas and other social scientists, Putnam took pains to discredit their work. Putnam devoted much of his book to arguing that when it came to personal characteristics that produced the glories of Western civilization, the Negro race could not hold a candle to the white race. The evidence he amassed was so impressive and thoughtfully presented, it was easy to overlook the fact that it was irrelevant. The Supreme Court, after all, had not used sociological evidence to establish that black people were the intellectual equals of white people, but only that they had been harmed by forced segregation. Whatever their capacities, as citizens they were entitled to equal protection of the laws. By the time Putnam published a sequel, Race and Reality (1967), Race and Reason had sold more than 150,000 copies, been widely embraced by Southern politicians and made required reading for teachers and advanced students in Louisiana. It is testimony to its power of persuasion in some quarters that, by his own account, reading the book as a self-described "liberal" junior high school student sent David Duke on the course that led him to become a leader of the Ku Klux Klan.


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