JEAN TILSEN BRUST, 76, an internationally known Socialist activist and former anthropology instructor, died of an apparent stroke on November 24, 1997, in Minneapolis, MN. Brust once called herself a "Marxist, Leninist, Trotskyist revolutionary" and was one of the founding members of the Socialist Workers Party in the 1930s. She left it "when it abandoned internationalism and turned toward reformism," she once told a reporter. Brust was a Workers Party candidate for a congressional seat and two years later she ran for the US Senate.
Born Jean Tilsen on August 31, 1921, in St Paul, MN. Brust was married to William Z Brust, a one-time gubernatorial candidate, whom she met during the 1946 packinghouse strike in South St Paul. She was once arrested for beating a man for crossing a picket line. She earned BA (1965) and MA (1969) degrees in anthropology from the U of Minnesota and completed coursework for the PhD. She taught at St Olaf College (1969-72), resigning in 1972 to devote full time to organizing for the Worker's League. She was also active in the civil rights movement, having conducted 1962 research for the NAACP entitled "Survey of De Facto Segretation in St Paul Schools."
Brust had three children, Cynthia Jean, M Leo and Steven K. She is survived by a son and daughter. (Based on an Associated Press obituary, November 28, 1997, and materials from the archives of the Department of Anthropology, St Olaf C.)

JAMES B CHRISTENSEN, 76, professor emeritus of anthropology at Wayne State U, died November 5, 1997, in Southfield, MI, from complications of emphysema and cancer.
Christensen was born in Centerfield, UT, on December 24, 1921. He attended Snow College in Ephraim, UT, before entering the Army Air Corps, where he served as a pilot and flight instructor (1942-46). He studied at the U of Utah, where he received a BSc (1947) and MA (1948). In 1950-51 he did anthropological research in Ghana on a Fulbright scholarship, and earned his PhD in anthropology from Northwestern U (1952) with a dissertation on Fanti culture.
In 1952 Christensen began his academic career at Wayne State U, where he later became a full professor and served as Chairman of the Department of Sociology and Anthropology, the Department of Anthropology (after Sociology and Anthropology split), and Director of the Social Science Program.
Accompanied by his family, Christensen spent 1959-60 doing research in Morogoro, Tanganyika, on a second Fulbright scholarship. He was also awarded a postdoctoral fellowship from the National Science Foundation (1959). In 1961 he served as a consultant and instructor for the Peace Corps. In the 1970s and 1980s he did research in various West African countries, including Ghana and Liberia. He retired in 1986, as professor emeritus. Christensen was the author of one book and numerous scholarly papers, articles and reviews on cultural anthropology, and held fellowships and memberships in many professional organizations.
Christensen married Joyce Besley in 1947 in Salt Lake City, UT, and they celebrated their 50th wedding anniversary last March. Traveling was his passion, and before and after retirement, he visited over 90 countries. Christensen is survived by his wife and sons, Carl W and Stephen B. Contributions may be sent to the American Lung Association of American Cancer Society.

TONI FLORES, 55, professor of woman's studies and American studies, Hobart and William Smith Colleges, died November 3, 1997.
Flores studied at Bryn Mawr and the U of Pennsylvania. She was a founding member of the Society for Humanistic Anthropology and poetry editor of Anthropology and Humanism. Her own words tell how she enacted an anthropological poetics: "One can't define poetry except by defining it in the doing. It has something to do with sensuality and the mind. That is, poetry has to do with the transfer, or perhaps the transformation of physical sensations, and our delight in them, directly to the mind, without the mediation of abstraction or 'ideas'."
In 1982 Flores published "Verses to Intractable Things" in Anthropology and Humanism Quarterly. This extract is prescient:

A cheese will break
exactly where it wills,
exactly where it wills
exactly where it wills.
You put your thumbs so,
because you want to save the half
and with firmness of purpose
and human clarity of mind
you press
and the cheese breaks
where it wants to . . .
My own death uncurls inside me
in uterus or heart or gut,
blind worm breaking cells,
gnawing walls
wherever it wills.
And still I will praise
intractable things
that know nothing
of my will
but follow
their own mathematics
with a solemn joy.

Shortly after she learned of her ovarian cancer, Flores told the convocation audience at her college: "Seek silence . . . Live fully in the blazing world . . . To be alive in this blazing word is a wonderful thing. To be alive and conscious is a gift beyond price and perhaps beyond comprehension.
Flores was a feminist, an ecologist, a student of Native American traditions and of poetics. Above all, she was a devoted mother to her 5 children: Adam and Andre Fratto, Kristen Flores-Fratto and John and Anthony Belliveau-Flores. When Toni, John and Anthony visited us on Retreat Island in 1994, she wrote:

Falling into sleep in the captain's bed, facing out to sea
and the rocks and the faint line where the sun had set,
Anthony murmured, "I can feel my heart beating. The stars
are going in and out with my heart beats."
And he fell asleep.

Child, where were you then? Did the stars sing to you
as they danced in and out between your dreams
and the edge of the still expanding universe,
or did you and they hold ethereal hands and dissolve
into the long silence that underlies all breath, all story,
all song? When we finish our reading for the night I kiss you,
do I hand you over to mother silence, into whose lap I myself
long and fear to go, and do you wait for me there?

Thanks, Toni, for being a muse to your children, to us and to the community that is within anthropology. To honor her, donations may be sent to the Toni Flores Fund, Alumni House, Hobart and William Smith Colleges, Geneva, NY 14456. (Robin and Jillian Ridington)

WILLIAM A "BILL" LESSA, 89, professor emeritus of anthropology at the U of California at Los Angeles and a major contributor both to Micronesian studies and the anthropology of religion, died in Los Angeles on October 14, 1997, after a long illness. A native of Newark, NJ, Lessa was born on March 3, 1908. He received his AB from Harvard (1928). After serving as a researcher at the Constitution Clinic at Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center (1929-30) and as a research associate at the U of Hawaii (1930-33), where he developed a lifelong fascination with the cultures of the Pacific, he enrolled in the U of Chicago's graduate program in anthropology. He received an MA in 1941.
Like so many members of his generation, Lessa's graduate education was interrupted by World War II, during which he served with distinction as a captain and later a major in American Military Government in Italy. After the war, he returned to Chicago and, on submitting a dissertation based on his wartime experiences, completed his PhD (1947). That fall, he joined the faculty at UCLA as an instructor but shortly thereafter took a leave of absence to do intensive fieldwork on Ulithi Atoll, in the Western Carolines, a place he would return to on several occasions in later years for further research. He eventually rose to the rank of professor, retiring in 1969 after a distinguished teaching career in the course of which he served as mentor and good friend to dozens of UCLA anthropology graduate students, myself included. Trained initially as a physical anthropologist, Lessa's first major publication, An Appraisal of Constitutional Typologies (1943), probably did more than any single publication to discredit Sheldon's then popular notion that body types ("mesomorphs," "endomorphs") determine personality structure. But his exposure at Chicago to the ideas of Radcliffe-Brown et al caused him to shift his focus to cultural anthropology, with an emphasis on magicoreligious belief systems. In this latter vein, in 1958, together with Evon Vogt, he edited the first of what would eventually become 4 editions of Reader in Comparative Religion (4th ed, 1979), still widely considered the standard work in the field.
Lessa also became intensely interested in folklore and published Tales from Ulithi Atoll (1961), a magisterial work that is often held to be a model of the genre. A few years earlier, he published "Oedipus-Type Tales in Oceania" (1956), which definitively demonstrated that the Oedipus story is not universal, as the Freudians had long held, but has a limited geographic distribution. His comprehensive ethnography Ulithi: A Micronesian Design for Living, a mainstay of the old Holt, Rinehart and Winston Case Studies series, has been read and appreciated by generations of anthropology students, as well as professionals in the field. Bill Lessa, who never married, is survived by brother Alfred Lessa and niece Rose Natale. (C Scott Littleton)

H JANE PHILIPS, 87, died June 21, 1997, in a retirement community in Hamilton, OH, where she lived for 5 years. Philips taught anthropology at Howard U for 20 years before retiring in the mid-1980s.
Philips, who lived in Washington from the 1950s until 1991, was born in Alexandria, Egypt. She was a graduate of Wilson College (Pennsylvania) and received a doctorate in anthropology from Columbia U. During World War II she did resettlement work in Kenya with the International Refugee Organization and also worked in Greek war relief efforts in Athens. Her work with refugees did not end with the war. She sponsored her own resettlement project, bringing an entire family from Egypt to the US.
Before joining the Howard faculty, Philips taught at Hunter College and the U of Pittsburgh's Graduate School of Public Health. Her anthropological work took her to the 4 corners of the world. She lived and worked in Africa, Southeast Asia, Europe, the Caribbean and Central and South America. In Africa, she spent two years with the Nubian peoples before their lives were forever changed by the new Egyptian Aswan High Dam. In her mid-70s she made a trip down the Amazon River. She was also a member of the Society of Woman Geographers.
Philips was a gifted teacher. She was fascinated with every aspect of life, working in all areas of anthropology. She also had an extensive background in art history and religion. She communicated her fascination in such a way that students could not help but be equally intrigued. Philips's knowledge of the world community was so extensive that when she retired from Howard, we had to go back to our bookcases and bring out our encyclopedias again, as our living source of information had left.
Philips's generosity was unparalleled. She was an important contributor to the lives and welfare of many people from a multiciplity of backgrounds. She gave unstintingly of her time and emotional support, helping people to weather personal crises. She contributed financially to individuals without destroying their dignity and self-worth by packaging donations as payment for services she said she needed for herself or as scholarships for students in need. Her spiritual goodness at one time or another helped countless people. Philips is deeply missed by those who knew her. She is survived by brothers Reverend William H and Reverend David W Philips. (Arvilla Payne-Jackson, with assistance from Philips's two brothers and Rena Gropper)

PHILIP L RAVENHILL, 52, chief curator of the Smithsonian's National Museum of African Art (NMAA) for 10 years, died October 13, 1997, at his home in Washington, DC. He suffered a heart attack.
Ravenhill joined the NMAA in 1987. An anthropologist with a special interest in the visual arts, he developed and oversaw numerous exhibitions of both classical and modern African art. Throughout the years he played a pivotal role in selecting and recommending works for the museum to acquire. More than two dozen classical works recently donated to the museum in honor of its 10th anniversary on the National Mall are currently featured in an exhibition that Ravenhill organized, "Gifts to the National Collection of African Art."
Prior to joining the Smithsonian, Ravenhill was a senior research fellow at the International African Institute in London and project director of the West African Museums Project in Abidjan, Ivory Coast. He was a member of the steering committee of the West African Museums Programme and of the editorial boards of African Arts and Museum Anthropology.
At the National Museum of African Art, Ravenhill curated many exhibitions including the highly acclaimed permanent installation "The Art of the Personal Object," which examined the interpretation of form, style, visual meaning and cultural creativity in African utilitarian objects; "Kalabari Ancestral Screens: Levels of Meaning" and "Echoes of the Kalabari: Sculpture by Sokari Douglas Camp" (with Roslyn Walker); "Dreaming the Other World: Figurative Art of the Baule of Cote d'Ivoire"; "Recent Acquisitions: New Dimensions" (with Sylvia Williams); "Grace Kwami Sculpture: An Artist's Book by Atta Kwami"; "Three Explorations: Yoruba, Temne and Baga" (with Andrea Nicolls and Roslyn Walker) and "Sokari Douglas Camp: Three Sculptures." In 1992, he oversaw reinstallation of the museum's permanent gallery of classical African art, renamed at that time by him "Images of Power and Identity."
Among Ravenhill's publications were "Dreams and Reverie: Baule Images of Other-World Mates in the Twentieth Century" and "The Art of the Personal Object," as well as many exhibition brochures. At the time of his death, he was completing work on a book about the museum's collection of classical art. He also worked on numerous film projects, including "Dialogue avec le sacre: les arts traditionnels de Cote d'Ivoire," "The Hands of the Potter," "Togu Na and Checko: Change and Continuity in the Art of Mali" and "The Art of West-African Strip-Woven Cloth."
Born in Bath, England, Ravenhill received his BA in philosophy from Nyack College (NY, 1968), and MA and PhD in anthropology from the New School for Social Research (1970, 1976).
Ravenhill is survived by children Geoffrey, Brendan and Amanda, former wife Judith Timyan and his friend and companion Massumeh Farhad. (Courtesy of the NMAA, Smithsonian Institution)

T DALE STEWART, 96, physical anthropologist, died October 27 in Bethesda, MD. Born June 10, 1901 in Delta, PA, Stewart began a career association with the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, DC, in 1924 as an aide to physical anthropologist Ales Hrdlícka. He took premedicine courses at George Washington U (AB, 1927). After studying medicine at the Johns Hopkins U (MD, 1931), he returned to the Smithsonian, succeeding Hrdlícka in 1942 as curator of the Division of Physical Anthropology. He served as head curator in 1961 and museum director (1962-66). Stewart formally retired from the Smithsonian in 1971 but continued professional activity for another two decades.
Stewart taught at Washington U Medical School (1943), in Mexico City (1945), and at the George Washington U School of Medicine (1958-67). In 1954 and 1955, he assisted the US Army Quartermaster Corps in Japan in the identification of human remains recovered from the Korean conflict. This work led to the classic 1957 monograph (with Thomas McKern) Skeletal Age Changes in Young American Males. Additional research-related travel included work in East Africa, China, Guatemala, Iraq and Peru.
Stewart published over 200 articles and books, focusing mostly on interpretation of human skeletal remains but including topics in archaeology, forensic anthropology, history of anthropology, paleoanthropology (especially issues related to Shanidar Neanderthals), human and primate comparative anatomy, paleopathology, dental anthropology, general human skeletal biology and physical anthropology. His major works include The People of America (1970), Essentials of Forensic Anthropology (1979), the 1952 edition of Hrdlícka's Practical Anthropometry and Personal Identification in Mass Disasters (1970). In 1992, at the age of 91 years, Stewart published a Smithsonian monograph on his 1938-40 archaeological work at the Virginia site of Patawomeke. Stewart is well known for his many problem-oriented articles, attention to detail, clarity of expression, meticulous scholarship and professional dedication. He was also an accomplished portrait artist who played the piano, loved to entertain and recount his world travels and always found time for students and friends.
For two decades beginning in 1942, Stewart served as the regular consultant in forensic anthropology for the FBI. In this capacity he reported on many cases and regularly testified in murder trials as an expert witness. Stewart was awarded an honorary doctorate degree from the U of Cuzco (1949). He received the Wenner-Gren Foundation's Viking Medal in Physical Anthropology (1953) and the Smithsonian's Joseph Henry Medal (1976). In 1962, he was elected to the National Academy of Sciences. He became an honorary member of the American Orthopaedic Association (1963) and the American Academy of Forensic Sciences (1974). Stewart served as president of the Anthropological Society of Washington, vice president of the Washington Academy of Sciences, president of the American Institute of Human Paleontology, member of the Committee on Research and Exploration of the National Geographic Society, editor (1952-48) of the American Journal of Physical Anthropology and president (1950-52) and treasurer-secretary (1960-64) of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists. In 1993, he received the Charles R Darwin Lifetime Achievement Award from the AAPA.
Stewart was preceded in death by first wife Julia Cable Wright Stewart (1951) and second wife Rita Frame Dewey Stewart (1996). He is survived by his daughter from his first marriage, Cornelia Stewart Gill, three grandchildren and 7 great-grandchildren.

JOHN ADAIR, 84, a cultural anthropologist who pioneered in visual and medial anthropology and worked more than 50 years with the Navajo nation, died December 14, 1997, in San Francisco, CA. Born in Memphis, TN, Adair studied at the U of Wisconsin and at Columbia U with Ruth Benedict, and completed his PhD at the U of New Mexico. He served in the armed forces during World War II. Before moving to San Francisco, Adair was associated as a teacher and researcher with Cornell U and the National Institutes of Mental Health. Between 1964 and 1978 he was a professor of anthropology at San Francisco State U.
Adair's photographs, films and texts from 1938 through the mid-1970s are definitive references on Navajo health, silversmithing and culture. Among his seminal works are the film Navaho Silversmithing (1939) and books The Navajo and Pueblo Silversmiths (currently in its 11th printing) and Through Navajo Eyes (1972). Several of his research projects were located in Pine Springs, a Navajo community in northeastern Arizona. His film A Weave of Time documents 4 generations of a local family whom he knew while living in the community. Adair was recognized by residents of Pine Springs as a rarity among non-Navajos, for his ability to converse in their language.
Along with Margaret Mead, Adair was one of the founders of the Society of Applied Anthropology. He was also a cofounder of the Navajo Arts and Crafts Guild, which placed artistic and economic control of their work in the hands of Navajo artists.
Adair made a concerted effort both to allow the communities he studied heritage access to his materials and to give them control over how the materials are used. To this end, his archives are housed at the Wheelwright Museum of the American Indian in Santa Fe, NM. Adair is predeceased by his wife Carolyn (Casey) and son Peter. He is survived by daughters Margo and Nancy Adair. (Excerpted from the December 21, 1997, San Francisco Examiner obituary by Eric Brazil)

GORDON W HEWES, 80, an anthropologist whose professional interests encompassed all subdisciplines, died in Boulder, CO, November 22, 1997. Born in San Francisco on October 29, 1917, Hewes received an AB degree from the U of California, Berkeley (1938) with a major in anthropology and minor in economics. His PhD in anthropology was from the same institution (1947).
Hewes's doctoral research was on indigenous fishing on the North American west coast. He demonstrated the role of fishing among precontact native American populations and showed what effects this prior use had on the postcontact fishing industry. Hewes's work forms the baseline data used in recent fishery studies in the same region.
Hewes maintained a professional interest in archaeology. He directed archaeological surveys in the central San Joaquin Valley (1939) and the field school in archaeology sponsored by the U of North Dakota (1947-48). In 1950 he served as president of the Southern California Archaeological Survey Association, and with sponsorship of the Smithsonian Institution he directed U of Colorado excavations at Wadi Halfa, Sudan, in 1962 and 1964.
During World War II, Hewes served in the US Army, where he was attached to the Office of Strategic Services, in Washington, DC. During this time he renewed his interests in Japanese and Chinese languages and cultures. This interest in the Orient led to his study of comparative civilizations, an outgrowth of A L Kroeber's concern with cultural ecumenae. Hewes became an active member of the International Society for the Comparative Study of Civilization.
After the war, Hewes taught at the U of North Dakota (1946-49) and the U of Southern California (1949-1951). In 1951 he joined the faculty of the U of Colorado and became a professor emeritus in 1988. During his years at Colorado, his interest in human morphology led him to study human postural habits worldwide, resulting in "The Anthropology of Posture" (Scientific American 196:122-132). He maintained a macaque on campus and would demonstrate in various classroom performances the way in which she would switch from a quadrupedal to bipedal stance. He theorized that this shift was the result of climate and diet and that the evolution of language as derived from gestures may be closely tied to bipedal evolution. Hewes reopened the doors to the study of language origins, evolution of higher cognitive functions and acceptance of the validity of observations of nonhuman primates in both laboratory and field situations.
Hewes was proficient in topics in physical anthropology, archaeology and ethnology/ethology. Authoring over 200 publications, the most recent of which includes "A History of the Study of Language Origins and the Gestural Primacy Hypothesis" (1996 Handbook of Human Symbolic Evolution), the republication in 1991 of his 1973 "Primate Communication and the Gestural Origin of Language" (Current Anthropology) and the "Daily Life Component in Civilization Analysis" (Comparative Civilizations Review, 1995).
Hewes is survived by his wife Minna Winestine Hewes, who shared fully in his fieldwork. Contributions in his honor may be made to: The Gorilla Foundation, P O Box 620-530, Woodside, CA 94062; or to Friends of Washoe, Central Washington U, Ellensburg, WA 98926. (Dorothy Kaschube and Barbara Voorhies)

HANS HOFFMANN, 68, died suddenly at home in Vestal, NY, March 8, 1997, of a ruptured aneurysm of the aorta. Hoffmann was born in 1929 in Koblenz, Germany, and moved with his family to White Plains, NY, 10 years later. He majored in mathematics at Cornell U and studied anthropology and Chinese literature as minors. At Yale, he earned his anthropology PhD with his dissertation "Assessment of Cultural Homogeneity among the James Bay Cree" (1957). His dissertation research used thematic apperception test protocols and life histories to study the psychological aspects of acculturation of the people of Attawapiskat. He taught briefly at the Universities of Oklahoma and Arkansas before going to SUNY Binghamton, where he remained until his death. His early fieldwork also included studies of the Great Whale River Eskimo and the Shipibo of both the upper Amazon and the Ucayali Rivers.
Though interested in the subject of psychology, Hoffmann held an even greater interest in the application of mathematics, and particularly symbolic logic, to anthropology. He wrote numerous articles on mathematical anthropology, including a review of the field in the Biennial Review of Anthropology (1970). In later years, he transformed his lifelong love of boating into an interest in maritime anthropology, emphasizing the application of mathematics to technical aspects of boat design and navigation. Since 1980, Hoffmann spent many summers in the Chesapeake Bay region, studying the waterways and the boats designed to fish them in the 19th century. He also purchased and sailed a Pacific-style multihull boat to broaden his knowledge of traditional Pacific voyaging. His maritime anthropology research resulted in his teaching 5 courses on the subject, and he thus singlehandedly made Binghamton U's maritime anthropology training the most extensive available at an inland US university, and perhaps the most technologically oriented anywhere in the world.
Hoffmann's personal interests and love of anthropology were inseparable. He was an avid outdoorsman who combined his bicycling, hiking, cross-country skiing and gliding with his professional work. For example, his bicycling and hiking of the Erie Canal resulted in the introduction of a section on canals into his Technology and Material Culture course, and his long experience as a glider pilot led to his 1989 article "Gliding in L3: Decisions, Decisions," which used symbolic logic to describe decision-making processes of glider pilots. Hoffmann was an indefatigable researcher, possessed of an active mind that was always moving in new directions, and it was his students who were always the first and most significant beneficiaries of his work. As a result of his many interests, his students were treated to such diverse courses as Viking Traders and Raiders, Peoples of the Northern Forest and Art in Culture, all taught with a decidedly scientific orientation. His older courses, furthermore, never stayed old, since he spent a great deal of time and effort in reorganizing them to present the results of his research.
Hoffmann is survived by his wife Elizabeth, children Ingrid, Kathryn and Christopher, and 6 grandchildren. (Daniel Strouthes; photo courtesy of the Department of Anthropology, SUNY-Binghamton)

KENNETH KIRKWOOD, 78, Rhodes Professor of Race Relations, U of Oxford, England, died October 16, 1997. Born in Transvaal in 1919, Kirkwood served in World War II in Africa and Italy with the South African Engineer Corps, before turning to social anthropology and politics. He held a post in comparative politics at the U of Natal and was involved with the South African Insitute of Race Relations. In 1952 Kirkwood went to London as a fellow of the Institute of Commonweath Studies, and in 1953 worked with Margery Perham on Lord Hailey's African Survey. Elected to the new chair of Race Relations in 1954, Kirkwood is credited with building St Anthony's College as a center for African Studies and for his opposition to racial intolerance. His faith in moderate political evolution in South Africa clashed with the Marxizing views of most of those in Oxford then interested in Africa. Kirkwood also served as chairman of the board of the Faculty of Anthropology and Geography. He wrote numerous articles and booklets, edited several volumes and was honored by a festschrift on his retirement in 1986 (A Kirk-Green and J Stone, eds). (Excerpted from an obituary in the December 1997 Anthropology Today)

CAROL PULLEY MACCORMACK, 63, suffered a massive stroke while showing a friend through her beloved spring garden and died on May 15, 1997, at the Hospice Center in Lancaster, PA. Born in California, MacCormack earned a BA in history (Magna cum laude) from Millersville College and a PhD in anthropology at Bryn Mawr College (1971).
MacCormack taught at Franklin and Marshall College, where she chaired the department before taking a position at Cambridge U (1974-79) as lecturer and fellow, New Hall. In 1979 she was appointed senior lecturer in social sciences at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, where she lectured on anthropology to MDs from many nations. She later combined this with duties as senior lecturer in anthropology at the School of African Studies at the U of London. MacCormack retired in 1990 and taught briefly in New Zealand (Auckland) before taking a McBride Professorship in Anthropology at Bryn Mawr College for three years. In 1993 she began research in the anthropology of bereavement, working through the Lancaster hospice, and combined this with teaching at Franklin and Marshall College as a distinguished visiting professor of anthropology. She had agreed to direct the women's studies program at F&M a few days prior to her untimely death.
MacCormack's fieldwork was in Sierra Leone among the Sherbro, where she focussed on how women achieve power and exercise political leadership as Paramount chiefs. She later combined this interest with research in health throughout developing areas of the world (Tanzania, Pakistan, Burma, Jamaica, India, Gambia) and held consultancies with the World Health Organization, World Bank, Rockefeller Foundation, Ford Foundation and Agency for International Development.
MacCormack was a prolific writer, contributing over 80 chapters and articles to international journals and edited volumes, including Canadian Journal of African Studies (female leaders), Africana Research Bulletin (leadership), Society for the Social History of Medicine Bulletin (childbirth), Mims (ethnic minority health), Ethnologische Zeitschrift Zurich (art), Bulletin of the World Health Organization (malaria control), Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (family planning) and The Friend (compassion). Her contributions to edited volumes are extensive: "Madam Yoko: Ruler of the Kpa Mende Confederacy," in Rosaldo and Lamphere's Women Culture and Society (1974); Recipes (with an account of the cultural context of Sherbro cooking and eating) in Kuper's The Anthropologists Cookbook (1977); "Slaves, Slave Owners and Slave Dealers: Sherbro Coast and Hinterland," in Robertson and Klein's Women and Slavery in Africa (1983); and "Human Leopards and Crocodiles: Political Meanings of Categorical Anomalies," in Brown and Tuzin's The Ethnography of Cannibalism. Her best-known writings are chapters in volumes she herself edited: Nature, Culture and Gender (1981) with M Strathern (reprinted in many languages), Ethnography of Fertility and Birth (1982), Folk Medicine and Health Culture: Roles in Modern Health Care (1982) with T Vaskilampi and There Is Another World but It Is This One: A Holistic Perspective (1991).
MacCormack was an inspiring and demanding teacher. Her many students have lost a best friend as well as an unflappable and tireless mentor. She is survived by her husband Jack Mongar, son Paul and 4 grandchildren. (Jane C Goodale)

JEROME R MINTZ, 67, professor emeritus of anthropology and Jewish studies at Indiana U, Bloomington, died on November 22, 1997 in Bloomington. Born March 29, 1930 in Brooklyn, NY, Mintz received a PhD from Indiana U (1961) and began to teach in the Indiana U Folklore department in 1962, following a year at Ohio State U. He joined the Indiana department of anthropology in 1966. 
Mintz's work has been internationally recognized for his contributions in two ethnographic areas: rural Andalusia (Spain) and Hasidic communities in the US. His research in Andalusia culminated in his book the Anarchists of Casas Viejas (1982, 1993), as well as in 6 ethnographic films, including Carnaval De Pueblo (1987), Pepe's Family (1978) and Romeria: Day of the Virgin (1986). His filmography received several awards, including the Award for Excellence from the Society for Visual Anthropology (for Romeria, 1986) and two first prizes in the Modern Language Association Film Festival (for The Shoemaker and Pepe's Family, 1980). Based on a multifaceted methodology, Mintz's Andalusian ethnography provides a complex and exhaustive social scientific analysis of a European rural society, the social, cultural and economic changes it undergoes and its role in national identity and historical memory. The Anarchists is embedded in an oral historical approach to political memory, as represented in local narratives about the spread of anarchism in rural Andalusia. His most recent book, Carnival, Song, and Society (1997), is a study of rural carnival as it elaborates on the memory of the anarchist past and on present social concerns in the same region.
Mintz's work on Hasidim is similarly inspired, from a methodological viewpoint. While he started with the ethnographic collection of narrative folklore in his books Legends of the Hasidim (1968) and In Praise of Baal Shem Tov (1970, coauthored with Dan Ben-Amos), Mintz's study of Hasidic society culminated in his Hasidic People: A Place in the New World (1992), which received the National Jewish Book Award in 1993. Here again, one finds the analysis of a community undergoing major sociocultural changes, especially with immigration to the US after World War II. The most striking aspect of Mintz's work is represented in his refined ethnographic skills: in his written and visual works, one can hear the peasants' striking voice and words and can visualize the tremendous listening capacity of the observer, his ability to capture the character and humor of his subjects. For this reason, Mintz's writing on paper and on screen is extremely moving and convincing, while it also reveals a relentless sense of humor that those who were lucky to be his colleagues were able to appreciate on a daily basis.
Jerry Mintz died after a long struggle with leukemia. He is survived by his wife Betty (Kowalski) Mintz, daughter Aviva Tavel and sons Paul and Aron. (Joele Bahloul)

DANIEL NUGENT, 42, died suddenly of a brain hemorrhage on October 12, 1997, in Tucson, AZ. One of the most prominent, prolific and professionally active anthropologists of his academic generation, Nugent authored or edited 4 books and numerous articles. He played an important role promoting interaction between Mexican scholars and their American counterparts, organizing binational conferences and numerous collaborative research and writing projects. He also collaborated with the San Francisco Mime Troupe in the scripting and production of a play about the EZLN uprising in Chiapas. He was active as an editor and contributor to journals of critical social theory, including Critique of Anthropology and The Journal of Historical Sociology, Identities, Labour, Capital and Society and Monthly Review. He held research and teaching positions at the U of Texas, Austin, U of California, Riverside and San Diego, and the U of Arizona, Tucson, where he was an assistant professor of anthropology at the time of his death.
Nugent took from his undergraduate and graduate studies at the U of Chicago a conception of anthropology rooted in social theory and commitment to the integration of theory with ethnography and history. Intellectual commitment to social theory, especially but not exclusively its Marxist variants, was central not only to Nugent's anthropological work but to his life; it was inseparable from his political and cultural radicalism. He lived his attitudes through his anarchopopulist personal style, a montage of funky-Western dress and an ironically humorous manner through which he sought to distance himself from the social pretentions, intellectual conformism and political timidity of academic life. Not surprisingly, the style, together with the intellectual and political commitments that underlay it, tended to polarize his relations with colleagues, while helping to make him a popular and charismatic teacher. In the field (Namiquipa, Chihuahua), the same qualities led him to go beyond participant observation to participation for its own sake: laboring in the fields alongside the families with whom he lived, working as a mechanic with local men to repair their cars and pickups, performing with local bands and teaching in the town school (with his students, he organized a municipal historical archive). The result was superb ethnography and insightful interpretations of local perspectives on history, politics and issues such as the meaning of the Mexican revolution and the current crisis of the Mexican state. These strengths are evident in Nugent's Spent Cartridges of Revolution: An Anthropological History of Namiquipa, Chihuahua (1993).
Nugent's 7-year-old son Carlos asked that this text include a few words from him: "I really really loved him. . . . Dad. I'll miss you." So will Nugent's many friends in Namiquipa and elsewhere. So will anthropology.
Nugent's parents, Peggy and Charles Nugent, have established a memorial fund for a dissertation prize to be given in his name by the Department of Anthropology, U of Chicago. Donations can be made to the U of Chicago, marked for "The Daniel Nugent Memorial Fund," and sent to the chair, Department of Anthropology, U of Chicago, 1126 E 59th St, Chicago, IL 60637 (Terry Turner)

ANNETTE B WEINER, 64, died December 7, 1997, at her home in Manhattan, after a long battle with cancer. Weiner was one of the most prominent contemporary American cultural anthropologists, having distinguished herself as President of the AAA (1991-93), President of the Society for Cultural Anthropology (1987-89) and as Chair of Anthropology (1981-91), Dean of Social Science (1993-96) and Dean of the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences (1993-96) at New York U. She earlier taught at the U of Texas, Austin.
Born Annette B Cohen in Philadelphia, February 14, 1933, Weiner began her academic career late, having earlier worked in business, married and raised a son and daughter, before receiving a BA in anthropology at the U of Pennsylvania (1968) and PhD at Bryn Mawr C (1974). Her major fieldwork was in the Trobriand Islands, and it is her rich ethnography and brilliant analyses of that society that are her most lasting achievements. Her fieldwork there (1971-72, 1976, 1980, 1982, 1989) led to major reappraisal of Trobriand culture and to reassessment of Malinowski's pioneer contributions to anthropology. Weiner also conducted archaeological work in Guatemala (1969-70) and ethnographic fieldwork in western Samoa (1980).
Weiner published some of the most significant and influential works in Pacific region anthropology in the postwar era. Women of Value, Men of Renown: New Perspectives in Trobriand Exchange (1976), The Trobrianders of Papua New Guinea (1988), Inalienable Possessions: The Paradox of Keeping-While-Giving (1992) and the symposium volume Cloth and Human Experience (1989), coedited with Jane Schneider. She also advised the award-winning film "The Trobriand Islanders of Papua New Guinea" (1990), by David Wason for Granada Television. She published over 30 articles and numerous reviews, the most important supplementing her monographs on the Trobriands or modifying her deep concerns with the value and circulation of goods.
Weiner made significant contributions to ethnography and anthropological theory in the areas of gender and women's studies, kinship, material culture and exchange. Her work is characterized by deep originality in recognizing the gendered and political ramifications of exchange and kinship, rethinking such classic issues as reciprocity, incest, inalienability and hierarchy. Her first monograph illuminated women's roles in Trobriand mortuary rituals, powerfully expanding the earlier picture of Trobriand culture and society provided by Malinowski. Her second discussed different media and cycles of exchange with distinctive attributes for producing power, status and hierarchy. It also raised new questions about the ways magic related to wealth, power and sexuality. Her final volume made comparative study of her own findings in the Trobriands and Samoa and other ethnographic materials from elsewhere in the Pacific. In this she pursued the subtle intimations originally raised by Mauss, challenging the simple gift/commodity dichotomy for exchange, arguing that exchange should be understood as expressing identity and producing forms of hierarchy. Her arguments centered on social processes in which the capacity to exchange or withhold goods marked varying forms of power and identity, often centering on changing statuses of men and women.
In the volume coedited with Schneider, Weiner expanded on her study of reciprocity and re-established cloth and weaving as major material modes of cultural expression and understanding.
Weiner was strongly committed to anthropology both as an intellectual discipline and as a practical means to better human appreciation and the ability to change social life. Her impact on Pacific studies and American anthropology in general was recognized by the profession when shortly before her death she was given the AAA's Distinguished Service Award. Weiner is survived by her husband, anthropologist William Mitchell (U Vermont) and children Jonathan Winer and Linda Hoffman Matisse, stepchildren Edward S and Elizabeth D Mitchell and 8 grandchildren.

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