|BRUCE DAKOWSKI, 51, died of leukemia on September 30, 1999 in England.
Born August 12, 1948, he was best known to British anthropologists as the
originator and presenter of the Central Television series, “Strang ers
Abroad,” about six of the founders of anthropology (Baldwin Spencer, Rivers,
Boas, Malinowski, Mead and Evans-Pritchard). The series was first broadcast
in Britain on Channel Four in 1985, and later in the US. Dakowski came
to anthropology as a mature student after an injury in Northern Ireland
while serving as an army doctor. He made efforts to launch a foundation
for ethnobiology and ethnopharmacology at Oxford U and worked as a media
consultant in the pharmaceutical industry. His unfinished doctoral thesis
at Oxford is entitled, “Problems in the Analysis of Symbolism, with Special
Reference to Psychological Precon ceptions in Ethnography.” Dakowski is
survived by his wife Serena. (Excerpted from Anthropology Today, February
2000, p 23-24.)
PAT GRINAGER, 81, anthropologist and author of Uncommon Lives, My Lifelong
Friendship with Margaret Mead, died October 10, 1999, of heart failure.
Picture a beat-up VW van, home and office to a robust woman with four
rambunctious sons in and out of tow, and a purse holding that woman’s last
$26. Then imagine a woman hungry but without the slightest doubt that she
would survive and prosper. That was Pat Grinager. Born 1918 in Fergus Falls,
MN, she was “not about to cotton to despair or rank,” according to Dottie
Grinager spent much of her later life interviewing colleagues and relatives
of Mead. Un stop pable, carrying a sleeping bag and gifts of food, she
would call ahead and, with tape recorder and camera, descend. She interviewed
each of Mead’s former husbands and whoever was left of the Ash Can Cats—Mead’s
clique of friends at Barnard. She visited the place Mead was born, Mead’s
apartments in NYC and kept index cards on hundreds of people.
Grinager’s deep fascination, affection and no-nonsense criticism of
Mead allowed a unique and generous relationship with this great woman.
Mead enjoyed her respect with no fawning, no guru nonsense. Her legacy
is a backstage look into the life of this most public anthropologist. The
book was delayed many years until she could bring herself to write the
touching last chapter on Mead’s death.
Grinager came to anthropology via General Studies at Columbia U, where
she earned her BA (l956) and MA (1957). Working on her doctorate at Stanford,
she taught at two junior colleges, participated in nutritional research
at San Francisco hospitals, trained Peace Corps volunteers and in 1964,
wrote a thesis, “Extension Education by Land-Grant Colleges and Universities
through Television.” She taught at the U of Delaware, then became Director
of Admissions and Finan cial Aid and Dean of Students for the School of
General Studies at Columbia. She was a dynamic lecturer, lecturing fluently
without notes on health, aging, human sexuality and anthropology. She wrote
on human sexuality, the history of education and American Indians, and
served on the Wisconsin Governors Advisory Board on Aging. In l969, Grinager
moved to Milwaukee, where she taught at Milwaukee U, remarried, was widowed
and retired in l978.
Grinager enjoyed her role as an eccentric, which gave her license to
indulge her extraordinary sense of humor. At one AAA meeting, she visited
the museum in Mexico City. Eyeing a long line of wheelchairs, she commandeered
one. Seated and loaded with all our equipment, purses, cameras, meeting
catalogues and briefcases, she enjoyed being pushed. When rested, we re
versed the roles.
Grinager had a carved wooden stature of Mead, complete with Welsh shepherd
staff and a mouth that opened and shut constructed by Bruce Muir, husband
of Mead’s niece. With this puppet and a remarkable memory, Grinager held
students and friends spellbound working the wooden figure as she recited
the inimitable Mead’s brilliant and amusing words.
Grinager died in the arms of a dear friend Lotu from Tongo and leaves
four deeply bereft sons: Kent, Laird, Miles and Neal Powers, and ten grand
children. (Dana Raphael)
THOMAS H HARGROVE, 47, died on October 16, 1999 in Raleigh, NC, of a
massive heart attack, ironically in a new museum. With that simple statement
we begin to take stock of our memories of a colleague and friend who left
us too soon. He received his BA from the U of New Mexico (1974) and MA
from George Washington U (1980). At the time of his death he was a PhD
student at the U of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. His professional experience
included work with the Smithsonian Institution/George Washington U Kalahari
Project, work with the Smithsonian Museum of Natural History, completing
research for the Swiss Lakes Bronze Age exhibit. Ex perience at the North
Carolina Office of State Archaeology led him to contract archaeology and
employment as Principal of Archaeological Re search Consultants. That is
the easy part, and like anything easy, it falls far short of capturing
Hargrove had many interests outside his profession. He was a fan of
traditional music, serving as president of Pinecone for several years and
as director of The Old Time Herald. He was a voracious reader of eclectic
tastes. A visit to his office would inevitably result in a reference to
a new book or article on any topic imaginable. Hargrove not only owned
good books—he read them.
The best summation of Hargrove’s interests was expressed at a memorial
gathering of his friends. There were archaeologists. There were traditional
music aficionados. There was family. There were people who could not be
put into any particular category. We have lost a friend, a colleague and
a gentleman. (John Clauser)
BOHUSLAV KLIMA, 74, the leading figure in Czech archaeology and one
of the preeminent archaeologists of his generation died in Brno, Czech
Republic, on February 6, 2000. A prolific scholar and an indefatigable
field investigator, Klima was part of a distinguished intellectual tradition
of outstanding Moravian re searchers. His scholarly interests ranged widely
and resulted in more than 380 publications in Czech, English, French, German
and Russian on a wide variety of topics from the Lower Paleolithic to the
Neo lithic. He was best known to American and Euro pean specialists for
his seminal work on the Pavlov culture, a Central European variant of the
Gravettian technocomplex, which he, together with H Delporte defined in
1959. His extensive field work at such world-renowned sites as Dolni Vestonice
I and II and Pavlov I and II, as well as Petrkovice and Predmosti, not
only revealed the existence of highly sophisticated and novel technologies
in the Upper Paleolithic, but also focused well-deserved attention on these
premier sites of universal importance in the human cultural patrimony of
Although contributing heavily to the culture history of Central Europe,
Klima’s research attention was always also focused on understanding the
lifeways of the producers and users of the complex material culture inventories
excavated. This involved early application of multidisciplinary approaches
to studying the past, including combining geological, paleontologic, palynological
and pedological data to reconstruct Pleisto cene landscapes. He devoted
equal attention to the social, symbolic and ritual frameworks that lay
behind Upper Paleolithic adaptations and published on prehistoric art,
ritual and belief systems.
Klima lived a rich life and one filled with recognition and accolades
from the world community of archaeologists. He began his scholarly career
at the Moravian Museum and subsequently was in charge of Paleolithic research
in the Prehistoric Department at the Institute of Archaeology, Academy
of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Brno. At the time of his death he was
clearly one of Europe’s leading Paleolithic specialists and the premier
expert on Central and Eastern Europe. This eminence, however, was borne
with gentlemanly grace and quiet confidence.
In addition to being a world-class scholar, Klima was an unparalleled
colleague and mentor. His gracious office and home at Dolni Vestonice were
always open to Czech and foreign researchers who benefited from his erudition,
wisdom and oneological prize-winning expertise. We can attest to his scholarly
and intellectual magnanimity and openness to new ideas and interpretations,
and our palates and those of countless other archaeologists can also vouch
for the superiority of his “Mammoth Blood.” His well-deserved expertise
was not exclusionary, but always open to new ideas and interpretations.
Klima likely knew more than anyone about the Upper Paleolithic of Central
Europe, but was always open to learning more.
Although Klima’s death marks the passing of an intellectual giant—indeed
a classic European scholar—the trajectory of scholarship which he forged
will flourish at Dukla in the work of the younger generation of Moravian
experts trained or influenced by him. (Olga Soffer and James M Adovasio)
KOENTJARANINGRAT, 76, dean of Indonesian anthropologists, died in Jakarta,
March 24, 1999. A paragon of teaching, research and service, he had strength,
commitment and kindness. Born June 15, 1923, in Yogyakarta, Koentjaranin
grat bore a noble title, the initials of which, R M (Raden Mas), sometimes
preface his one name. In 1950, the first year of the Republic of Indonesia,
he was an early graduate of Yogya’s Gadjah Mada U (founded 1946). Among
the first Indonesians to study in the US, he earned an MA at Yale in 1956.
His thesis, A Preliminary Description of the Javanese Kinship System, was
published there (1957). With him in New Haven and her in Jakarta, he married
his life companion and survivor, Stien, to whom his first and last books
Koentjaraningrat returned to the U of Indo nesia for his doctorate.
His published dissertation (1958) surveyed anthropological methods used
in previous cultural studies in Indonesia. Further research led to the
much expanded Anthropology in Indonesia: A Bibliographical Review published
in English in the Netherlands (1975). In the meantime fieldwork in Java
led to Some Social-Anthropological Observations on Gotong Royong [Mu tual
Aid] Practices in Two Villages of Central Java (1961), which placed the
political-ideological notion of “mutual aid” in real ethnographic contexts,
and he edited the first book of Indo nesian community studies, Villages
of Indonesia (1967).
By the late 1980s Koentjaraningrat had published some 80 articles in
Indonesian and overseas journals and written or edited over 22 books on
diverse topics. His ethnographic focus was Java, culminating in Javanese
Culture (1985), but he guided students and others in fieldwork in Irian
Jaya and did research once in rural Netherlands.
Koentjaraningrat applied American and Dutch cultural anthropological
approaches to understanding continuity and change in Indonesia and its
many socioeconomic problems. Even during tumultuous times and often deteriorating
academic conditions, he steadfastly researched, wrote, taught and promoted
the studies and careers of new generations of Indonesian academics and
others. He strove to strengthen cultural anthropology at his university
and expand it to other ones; he contributed mightily to the Indonesian
Institute of Sciences, the Social Science Consortium and other organizations;
and he worked through the Dutch-Indonesian Cultural Accord to reestablish
cultural links be tween the two nations. Over the decades Koentjaraningrat
was visiting professor at Utrecht U, U of Illinois, Ohio U and Australian
National U; and in 1976 he received a Doctor Honoris Causa degree from
Utrecht U. He was noted for his generous friendship and help to foreign
scholars working in Indonesia.
On August 25-28, 1997 in Jakarta, he was surrounded by former students
and honored by them and other colleagues at the First National Anthropology
Workshop held by the revived Indonesian Anthropology Association, at which
he was an active participant despite frail health. In an obituary, a former
student and colleague, Parsudi Suparlan, noted, “It was probably at this
time that he felt the high point of his happiness as a teacher.” (Clark
ARTHUR C LEHMANN, 64, passed away on September 18, 1999, at his home
in Chico, CA, after a long battle with cancer. Lehmann was Professor of
Anthropology at California State U, Chico, and is probably best known for
his anthropology of religion text, Magic, Witchcraft, and Religion: An
Anthropological Study of the Supernatural (co-authored with James). He
was working on the 5th edition at the time of his death.
Born on February 11, 1935 in Newcastle, IN, Lehmann received his BA
(1959) and MA (1961) in history at Indiana State U, Terre Haute and PhD
(1973) in anthropology at the U of Indiana, Bloomington. He started his
university teaching career at California State U, Chico in 1969 and was
chair of the department between 1976 and 1985. He also chaired the geography
department for one year. He was instrumental in establishing the African
Studies Program at Chico and was its coordinator for several years (1971-74).
Lehmann loved the informal nature of ethnographic fieldwork and did
not let the effects of polio, which he contracted in his youth, or cancer
stop him from conducting fieldwork in difficult settings. Most of his fieldwork
was conducted with foragers and farmers in the tropical forests of Central
Africa, but he also made trips to East and West Africa and Jamaica. He
was particularly interested in non-Western healing systems, art and traditional
architecture, and ethnographic film-making. His publications include: “Eyes
of the ngangas: Ethnomedicine and power in the Central African Republic”
(in the edited volume mentioned above), and “Aggression, bravery, endurance
and drugs: A radical reevaluation and analysis of the Maasai warrior complex”
(Ethnol ogy 12, pp 335-47). He devoted several field trips to making ethnographic
films and had nearly completed films on African healers and Obeah men in
While Lehmann may be best remembered in the broader academic community
for his religion textbook, he will be dearly missed and remembered by those
who knew him as a person with a legendary sense of humor and as a person
who was able to confer a sense of dignity on all who came into contact
with him. (Barry Hewlett)
DOUGLAS LAVAN MARTINEAU, 68, specialist in petroglyphs, died on February
26, 2000, at home in his trailer while visiting with his daughter in St
George, UT. Born January 3, 1932 in Kanab, UT, to Amon Douglas Martineau
and Mavis Soren son, Martineau married Doris Dorene Kanosh in 1954 in Moab,
UT. She died giving birth to their son, LaVan Jr in 1958 and he later married
Evaline Mae McFee in 1962. She preceded him in death in 1996.
After his father died in 1950, Martineau was raised by Edrick Bushead,
a Paiute who lived at the Cedar City Indian Village. He grew up learning
the language and culture and later married into the tribe. He served in
the US Air Force during the Korean War as an air traffic control operator.
Martineau was an author with several books under the publication of
KC Publications, his best known work being The Rocks Begin to Speak and
The Southern Paiutes. He also did work on Indian sign language, Indian
archery and his most re cent book, The Great Migrations and the Indian
Prophecies, is still in the publishing process. He was greatly admired
for his interpretation of petroglyphs. He combined his knowledge of spoken
Indian languages, Indian sign language, the histories of the tribes and
the best ethnographic background possible with thousands of observations
and then attempted a self-consistent, logical system of the meaning of
the symbols. It is hoped that his family will place his papers where they
will be available for future scholarly study.
Martineau had many interests, his favorite being his love for the great
outdoors and travel worldwide to learn about the different cultures of
the North American Indians. He was a warrior in life, always searching
for new battles to conquer and ways to preserve the culture of others so
that they might have knowledge for generations to come.
Martineau is survived by daughters Carmen Martineau, Shanandoah Martineau,
Jetta Wood and Dorena Martineau, and five grandchildren. (Farrel W Lytle)
JAMES V NEEL, 84, died February 1, 2000, in Ann Arbor, MI. One of the
nation’s foremost human geneticists, Neel had a profound impact on the
development of contemporary biological anthropology. Most notable were
his widely admired studies on relatively unacculturated Amazonian populations.
Partly as a result the Yanomama became anthropology’s best known indigenous
population, and still represent the best example of how local sociocultural
and demo graphic factors are ultimately responsible for the distribution
of human genetic variation. Neel emphasized that the role of genes in human
well-being required an appreciation for how evolutionary forces had shaped
patterns of human variation and that this could only be understood in the
context of the human constructed environment.
Neel was born March 22, 1905, in Hamilton, OH, and received his PhD
and MD from the U of Rochester. He married Priscilla Baxter (1943), and
they raised three children. He taught briefly at Dartmouth before taking
his position at Michi gan, where he founded the Department of Hu man Genetics,
one of the first in the country. Neel was one of the founders of the American
Society of Human Genetics and its journal. His career was recognised by
numerous honors, including membership in the National Academy of Sciences.
With Francisco Salzano and Ramiro Barrantes, Neel was the driving force
behind a series of biological studies on more than 20 different Amer indian
populations. The results showed that most genetic variation occurs within
local groups, rather than among continental populations, a finding that
helped discredit the notion of categorical human races. His work on tribal
populations demonstrated the importance of cultural factors in influencing
the distribution of genetic variation, as well as defining the basic physiology
that likely characterized our ancestors.
Many of Neel’s contributions were so fundamental that they are now
implicitly incorporated into the fabric of anthropological theory. He used
genetic principles to work out the inheritance of sickle cell disease and
the sickling trait, which provided the foundation for identifying the im
portance of malaria as a selective agent in human history. Neel was heavily
involved in plotting the footprints of natural selection throughout Africa,
and formulated the hypothesis that diabetes might be due to a metabolically
“thrifty,” genotype that is deleterious in conditions of nutritional surfeit.
This concept grew from his insight that our genome evolved under conditions
different from the contemporary environment created by cultural manipulation.
This is becoming one of the most influential concepts in attempts to understand
how genetic variation influences risk of disease.
Neel played a vital role in organizing the still-ongoing studies of
the mutational effects of exposure to radiation in the survivors of the
atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Neel and his colleagues made
substantial and long-lasting contributions to anthropology. He was an important
role model for budding anthropologists.
More on his life and work can be found in his autobiography (Physician
to the Gene Pool: Genetic Lessons and other Stories, 1994) and our perspective
(K Weiss, R Ward, “J V Neel,” Am J Hum Gent 66, 2000, pp 755-60). (RH Ward
and KM Weiss)
JOSEPH MELVILLE SEE, JR, 61, died March 19, 2000 at his home in Tucson,
AZ, of a gunshot wound, just one month short of his 62nd birthday. See
was born April 19, 1938 in Albany, NY, and grew up in Scarsdale. His parents,
Joseph Melville and Matilde Pilger See, traced their ancestry to the earliest
Dutch settlement of the Hudson Valley. Although his father, an insurance
executive, died when See was very young, he served as a model of a life
of adventure because he had joined the French Foreign Legion to serve in
the Lafayette Escadrille early in World War One. See graduated from Princeton
in 1960 with a degree in geology, went on to graduate work at the U of
New Mexico and then to the U of Arizona, where he earned an MA in geology
(1965). See was attracted to geology because as one of the last great exploring
disciplines it offered a life of risk and adventure. His first employment
involved geological and mining exploration in eastern and southern Africa.
While at Princeton, he met Linda Eastman whom he married. Their daughter
Heather was born in 1963 and they divorced soon after. Linda married Paul
McCartney, but See never remarried. Soon after moving to Arizona, he became
interested in both photography and the native peoples of the Greater Southwest.
He developed his photographic skills and soon was deeply involved in ethnographic
filmmaking. He was a perceptive observer of other cultures and produced
many dramatic and moving images. He continued to work as an exploration
geologist to support himself and for many years was involved in assessing
the economic potential of long-abandoned mines, especially in South America.
Increasingly, however, he devoted his time and efforts to filmmaking and
the study of indigenous art in northern Mexico. In the early 1980s, after
the death of his mother, See received a modest inheritance that allowed
him to devote full time to these interests. He made films of the Huichol,
Seri, Tarahumara and Tepehuan in Mexico and the Tuareg in north Africa,
several of which were screened nationally on PBS. He helped Tepehuan leaders
to revive old ceremonies by sharing with them the details of J Alden Mason’s
research among the Tepehuan early in the last century. There is a large
collection of his Huichol, Seri, Tarahumara, Tepehuan and Yaqui images
in the Photographic Archives of the Arizona State Museum at the U of Arizona.
(Raymond H Thompson)
WILLIAM A SHACK, 76, distinguished Afri can ist and Professor Emeritus,
U of California, Berkeley, died March 31, 2000, after a battle with cancer.
In his last months, with the assistance of his wife Dorothy Nash Shack,
he revised his book on African American musicians in Paris 1918-39 (in
press). Shack thus returned to his early interest in the urban migration
of African Americans. Between the 1955-57 research in Chicago and the 1990s
research in archives in Paris, London and the US, Shack had a career which
included field research in Ethiopia and Swaziland, teaching in African
universities and the U of Illinois, Chicago Circle and U of California,
Berkeley, and service on professional boards and as Dean of the Berkeley
Graduate School. How well he did this last is attested to by the many campus
and national committees on graduate affairs on which he served. He was
known as fair-minded, imaginative, critical and helpful. Few understood
the breadth of his experience or all that lay behind his appraisal of situations
Born in Chicago, April 19, 1923, Shack served in the US Navy during
World War II, then entered the School of the Art Institute, Chicago (BA,1955).
He might have become a painter, but his desire to understand the social
pressures of the time and a summer in Social Relations at Harvard U brought
him into anthropology. He did an MA in social anthropology at the U of
Chicago before leaving for Ethiopia for fieldwork among the Gurage, a people
notable for their reliance on the ensete plant as staple food. Chicago
had close links with British social anthropology and Shack chose to do
his PhD at the London School of Economics under Lucy Mair and Isaac Schapera.
Shack returned to Ethiopia to teach at the U College of Addis Ababa, Haile
Selassie U (1962-65), where created its department of sociology. The violent
death of many of his associates during Ethiopia’s years of trouble alienated
him from the new regime and he felt unable to return there for further
research. Eventually he found it hard to write ethnographically about a
people whom he knew to be undergoing great suffering and abandoned his
book on Gurage religion.
Shack’s books include: The Gurage (1966), The Central Ethiopians: Amhara,Tigrinya
and Related Peoples (1974), co-authored Gods and Heroes: Oral Traditions
of the Gurages of Ethiopia (1974), The Kula (1986), and co-edited Strangers
in African Societies (1979) and Politics in Leadership (1986). He served
on the Executive Council of the Inter national African Institute. The French
Govern ment honored him as Chevalier de l’Ordre National du Merite. He
held the Berkeley Citation and the Distinguished Service Award of the U
of Chicago Alumni Association. At the 1996 AAA annual meeting, former students
organized a panel “African Urban Anthropology and Beyond” that spoke to
the continued influence of his thinking. Throughout his career he had the
companionship of his wife and their son Hailu, who shared in his multifaceted
interests which included painting and music, sports cars, university politics
and cooking. (Elizabeth Colson and Suzanne Calpestri)
EDWIN M SHOOK, 88, Maya archaeology’s Four Katun Ahaw, died at home
in Antigua, Gua te mala on March 9, 2000. Shook was among the most prodigiously
active figures in Mesoamerican archaeology during the 20th century, with
a career spanning over 60 years. He was a friend and mentor to many generations
of Meso-american field workers in archaeology, ethnography and the natural
Shook was born on November 22, 1911, in Newton, NC Carolina. At the
age of 22 he turned a chance encounter into a job as draftsman with the
Carnegie Institute of Washington. He went on to become an archaeologist
in the legendary Division of Historical Research of the CIW, making his
first trip to Central America in 1934. Shook continued with the Carnegie
until the Division of Historical Research was disbanded in 1958. During
those years he worked at scores of sites in the Maya territory and lower
Central America. He was a pioneer in research on the Guatemalan highlands
and the Pacific coast. Shook’s labors at Kaminaljuyu were essential in
documenting that major Maya city and preserving its legacy before it was
swamped by the expansion of Guatemala City.
In 1955, following the final Carnegie project at Mayapan, Shook accepted
a position with the U of Pennsylvania as director of the Tikal project.
For nine years he led what was, at the time, the largest archaeological
project in the New World. At Tikal, he was responsible for many of the
greatest archaeological discoveries of the 20th century, and for training
a generation of lowland Maya field workers.
Following Tikal, Shook went on to work in Costa Rica before eventually
returning to Guatemala in 1968 to direct the Monte Alto Project on the
Pacific Coast. In the 1970s and 1980s he continued his work on the Pacific
Coast and Guatemalan highlands, producing important works on Formative
period sites such as La Blanca and Salinas la Blanca, among others. Shook
was still publishing in 1999, when he was stricken with pneumonia.
In addition to his scholarly activities, Shook was proud of the contributions
he made to his adopted country, Guatemala. He was instrumental in the establishment
of Guatemala’s first national park, at Tikal. He was also a principal in
the founding of the American School and the Universidad del Valle de Guatemala.
For his many contributions, Shook was awarded the Order of the Quetzal
by the Guatemalan government (1963). In 1989 he was made Doctor Honoris
Causa by the Universidad del Valle de Guatemala.
Shook’s wife of 54 years, Virginia Barr Shook, died in 1990. He is
survived by three sons: Edwin M Shook, Jr, Stephen H Shook and John A Shook,
along with six grandchildren.
Memorial donations may be made to the Virginia B Shook Library of the
Universidad del Valle de Guatemala, c/o the US Foundation of the Valley
of Guatemala, Kirby & Hornbuckle, CPA, PC, 214 College Ave, Elmira,
NY 14901. (Michael Love)
RUTH DEETTE SIMPSON, 81, one of California archaeology’s few female
pioneer archaeologists, died on January 19, 2000, in Redlands, CA. Simp
son was a remarkable archaeologist, humanitarian and pioneer. She was a
friend to the volunteers and associates who did not care if the ancient
dates she proposed at the Calico Early Man Site, near Barstow, CA, mattered.
What mattered to Dee, as she liked to be called, was that science was pursued
for the sake of science.
Born May 6, 1918, in Pasadena, CA, Simpson volunteered at the Southwest
Museum as a high school student. She received her MA in anthropology and
geology from the U of Southern California (1944). Following her mentor,
Mark R Harrington, to Phoenix, AZ (1944), she was Curator at the Heard
Museum for two years.
In 1946 Simpson returned to the Southwest Museum, where she began her
search for early Americans. She was key in founding the first archaeological
organization in California, the Archaeological Survey Association of Southern
California, with a goal to inventory all of southern California. She became
interested in the distribution of archaeological sites in the desert, particularly
around the ancient playas that dot the Mojave.
In 1964, Gerald Smith lured Simpson to the San Bernardino County Museum
as Curator of Archaeology. She retired from there in 1982, and instantly
became the museum’s first “Curator Emeritus.” It was as an employee of
the museum that her most famous adventures with “early man” occurred. She
and her mother went to Great Britain with a handful of artifacts from the
Calico Hills to visit Louis S B Leakey, who observed that they might have
been from East Africa. Leakey visited Calico Hills and “suggested” that
Simpson “put a unit there.” That suggestion kept her busy for the next
The Calico Hills Archaeological Site was funded by the National Geographic
Society (1964-68), as well as by the Wilke Brothers, Wenner-Gren, Skaggs,
Ava Geg-gugahard and the LSB Leakey Foundations. In 1984 the Society for
American Archaeology recognized Simpson for her “Outstanding Contributions
to American Archaeology.” In 1995, a symposium for her was held at the
Society for California Archaeology Annual Meeting, marking her 60 years
The years from 1995 to 2000 were a struggle for Simpson. Accidents
took their toll, funding was not what she desired, and questions about
the dating of the artifacts—whether they were artifacts at all—persisted.
One of her last achievements was knowing that a thermo-luminescence date
of a Clovis-like biface was 14,800 BP ± 2,000. Not as old as she
would have liked, but old enough to keep it in the arena of ancient Americans.
Congressman Jerry Lewis (R), Redlands is considering funding the Calico
Hills Archaeological Facility in the FY 2001 budget. The funding would
construct a Dee Simpson Curation facility and develop interpretive displays.
Phone calls, email or written requests to support the requested $600,000
will honor one of America’s pioneer archaeologists and help fulfill one
of her dreams. (Russell L Kaldenberg)
LAURA M THOMPSON, 95, distinguished sociocultural anthropologist who
studied peoples and cultures in wide-ranging geographic locations and contributed
significantly to the development of applied anthropology, passed away on
January 29, 2000, in Honolulu, HI. Her husband Sam van Heemskerck Duker,
a childhood classmate at Punahou School, died in 1978.
Thompson was born in Honolulu on January 23, 1905. She received her
BA from Mills C, PhD in anthropology from the U of California, Berkeley,
and an honorary LLD from Mills C. She also did graduate work at Radcliffe.
Thompson was the 1979 recipient of the Bronislaw Mali now ski Award from
the Society for Applied Anthropology.
Thompson published nine books and more than 70 articles in professional
journals. She wrote in her autobiography, Beyond The Dream: A Search For
Meaning (1991) that she was one of “Kroeber’s girls,” young women who became
known for their “farflung explorations in various parts of the world.”
Thompson conducted fieldwork in Fiji and Guam in her earlier years
and was on the staff at the Bernice P Bishop Museum in Honolulu (1929-34).
In the late 1930s, Thompson lived in Germany with her first husband, where
she experienced for herself something of National Socialism.
In the 1940s, while holding a research position via the U of Chicago’s
Committee on Human Development, Thompson undertook research among Native
Americans, particularly the Hopi, as a member of a multi-disciplinary research
team. During this time, she was married to then Commissioner of Indian
Affairs, John Collier.
From the 1950s Thompson taught at the U of North Carolina, North Carolina
State C, City College and Brooklyn C of CUNY, Southern Illinois U, San
Francisco State U and the U of Hawaii. She also conducted fieldwork in
Thompson maintained a lifelong interest in the people and culture of
Guam. The Honorable Robert A Underwood of Guam introduced into the Congressional
Record in the US House of Representatives (February 8, 2000) his lengthy
accolade to Thompson. The opening paragraph of his tribute contains the
following: “For the people of Guam and researchers everywhere, [Thompson’s
book] Guam and Its People is the seminal work on the essence of the Chamorro
culture. She was the first anthropologist to formally study the culture
of the people of Guam and every student, researcher or any person interested
in serious thinking about Guam must begin by reading and understanding
her work.” Guam’s Governor Carl T C Gutierrez awarded Thompson posthumously
the Ancient Order of the Chamorri.
In her autobiography, Thompson draws on her field research findings
over the years to set forth creative and heartfelt responses to human problems
of modern times: “An updated code of global ethics based on respect for
nature’s laws could spark a unified, planet-spanning endeavor to regenerate
and foster the Earth. The task would involve local, national and international
cooperation in a pan-global endeavor to understand, explain and support
the natural vibratory pro cesses that build, balance and uphold the living
planet” (p 144).
Thompson is survived by nieces Laura Good and Alice Broderick, and
granddaughter Marcella Moran. (Rebecca A Stephenson)
W D HAMILTON, 63, evolutionary biologist, died March 7, 2000. One of
the leaders of what has been called “the second Darwinian revolution,”
Hamilton was called by Richard Dawkins (The Selfish Gene) one of the most
important Darwinians of the 20th century. He taught at Oxford for his last
15 years and proposed the theory of kin selection as an explanation of
why animals are sometimes altruistic towards each other, despite the struggle
for the survival of the fittest. He then moved on to the difficult problem
of the evolution of sex from asexual reproduction, and proposed the now
widely discussed parasite theory.
SVEN LILJEBLAD, 100, authority on the Shoshonean-speaking Natives of
the Inter moun tain West, died on March 17, 2000, in Solna, Sweden. Liljeblad
came to the US in 1940 to trace the Uto-Aztecan Shoshonean language group
(including Utes, Paiutes, Shoshones, Banocks, Commanches, Panamints and
Kawaiisu). Much of his work through the early 1970s was done at Idaho State
U, then into the 1990s at the U of Nevada, Reno. He is survived by his
wife, Astrid Von Heijne.