BRUCE DAKOWSKI, 51, died of leukemia on September 30, 1999 in England. Born August 12, 1948, he was best known to British anthropologists as the originator and presenter of the Central Television series, “Strang ers Abroad,” about six of the founders of anthropology (Baldwin Spencer, Rivers, Boas, Malinowski, Mead and Evans-Pritchard). The series was first broadcast in Britain on Channel Four in 1985, and later in the US. Dakowski came to anthropology as a mature student after an injury in Northern Ireland while serving as an army doctor. He made efforts to launch a foundation for ethnobiology and ethnopharmacology at Oxford U and worked as a media consultant in the pharmaceutical industry. His unfinished doctoral thesis at Oxford is entitled, “Problems in the Analysis of Symbolism, with Special Reference to Psychological Precon ceptions in Ethnography.” Dakowski is survived by his wife Serena. (Excerpted from Anthropology Today, February 2000, p 23-24.)

PAT GRINAGER, 81, anthropologist and author of Uncommon Lives, My Lifelong Friendship with Margaret Mead, died October 10, 1999, of heart failure.
Picture a beat-up VW van, home and office to a robust woman with four rambunctious sons in and out of tow, and a purse holding that woman’s last $26. Then imagine a woman hungry but without the slightest doubt that she would survive and prosper. That was Pat Grinager. Born 1918 in Fergus Falls, MN, she was “not about to cotton to despair or rank,” according to Dottie Billings.
Grinager spent much of her later life interviewing colleagues and relatives of Mead. Un stop pable, carrying a sleeping bag and gifts of food, she would call ahead and, with tape recorder and camera, descend. She interviewed each of Mead’s former husbands and whoever was left of the Ash Can Cats—Mead’s clique of friends at Barnard. She visited the place Mead was born, Mead’s apartments in NYC and kept index cards on hundreds of people.
Grinager’s deep fascination, affection and no-nonsense criticism of Mead allowed a unique and generous relationship with this great woman. Mead enjoyed her respect with no fawning, no guru nonsense. Her legacy is a backstage look into the life of this most public anthropologist. The book was delayed many years until she could bring herself to write the touching last chapter on Mead’s death.
Grinager came to anthropology via General Studies at Columbia U, where she earned her BA (l956) and MA (1957). Working on her doctorate at Stanford, she taught at two junior colleges, participated in nutritional research at San Francisco hospitals, trained Peace Corps volunteers and in 1964, wrote a thesis, “Extension Education by Land-Grant Colleges and Universities through Television.” She taught at the U of Delaware, then became Director of Admissions and Finan cial Aid and Dean of Students for the School of General Studies at Columbia. She was a dynamic lecturer, lecturing fluently without notes on health, aging, human sexuality and anthropology. She wrote on human sexuality, the history of education and American Indians, and served on the Wisconsin Governors Advisory Board on Aging. In l969, Grinager moved to Milwaukee, where she taught at Milwaukee U, remarried, was widowed and retired in l978.
Grinager enjoyed her role as an eccentric, which gave her license to indulge her extraordinary sense of humor. At one AAA meeting, she visited the museum in Mexico City. Eyeing a long line of wheelchairs, she commandeered one. Seated and loaded with all our equipment, purses, cameras, meeting catalogues and briefcases, she enjoyed being pushed. When rested, we re versed the roles.
Grinager had a carved wooden stature of Mead, complete with Welsh shepherd staff and a mouth that opened and shut constructed by Bruce Muir, husband of Mead’s niece. With this puppet and a remarkable memory, Grinager held students and friends spellbound working the wooden figure as she recited the inimitable Mead’s brilliant and amusing words.
Grinager died in the arms of a dear friend Lotu from Tongo and leaves four deeply bereft sons: Kent, Laird, Miles and Neal Powers, and ten grand children. (Dana Raphael)

THOMAS H HARGROVE, 47, died on October 16, 1999 in Raleigh, NC, of a massive heart attack, ironically in a new museum. With that simple statement we begin to take stock of our memories of a colleague and friend who left us too soon. He received his BA from the U of New Mexico (1974) and MA from George Washington U (1980). At the time of his death he was a PhD student at the U of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. His professional experience included work with the Smithsonian Institution/George Washington U Kalahari Project, work with the Smithsonian Museum of Natural History, completing research for the Swiss Lakes Bronze Age exhibit. Ex perience at the North Carolina Office of State Archaeology led him to contract archaeology and employment as Principal of Archaeological Re search Consultants. That is the easy part, and like anything easy, it falls far short of capturing his contributions.
Hargrove had many interests outside his profession. He was a fan of traditional music, serving as president of Pinecone for several years and as director of The Old Time Herald. He was a voracious reader of eclectic tastes. A visit to his office would inevitably result in a reference to a new book or article on any topic imaginable. Hargrove not only owned good books—he read them.
The best summation of Hargrove’s interests was expressed at a memorial gathering of his friends. There were archaeologists. There were traditional music aficionados. There was family. There were people who could not be put into any particular category. We have lost a friend, a colleague and a gentleman. (John Clauser)

BOHUSLAV KLIMA, 74, the leading figure in Czech archaeology and one of the preeminent archaeologists of his generation died in Brno, Czech Republic, on February 6, 2000. A prolific scholar and an indefatigable field investigator, Klima was part of a distinguished intellectual tradition of outstanding Moravian re searchers. His scholarly interests ranged widely and resulted in more than 380 publications in Czech, English, French, German and Russian on a wide variety of topics from the Lower Paleolithic to the Neo lithic. He was best known to American and Euro pean specialists for his seminal work on the Pavlov culture, a Central European variant of the Gravettian technocomplex, which he, together with H Delporte defined in 1959. His extensive field work at such world-renowned sites as Dolni Vestonice I and II and Pavlov I and II, as well as Petrkovice and Predmosti, not only revealed the existence of highly sophisticated and novel technologies in the Upper Paleolithic, but also focused well-deserved attention on these premier sites of universal importance in the human cultural patrimony of our planet.
Although contributing heavily to the culture history of Central Europe, Klima’s research attention was always also focused on understanding the lifeways of the producers and users of the complex material culture inventories excavated. This involved early application of multidisciplinary approaches to studying the past, including combining geological, paleontologic, palynological and pedological data to reconstruct Pleisto cene landscapes. He devoted equal attention to the social, symbolic and ritual frameworks that lay behind Upper Paleolithic adaptations and published on prehistoric art, ritual and belief systems.
Klima lived a rich life and one filled with recognition and accolades from the world community of archaeologists. He began his scholarly career at the Moravian Museum and subsequently was in charge of Paleolithic research in the Prehistoric Department at the Institute of Archaeology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Brno. At the time of his death he was clearly one of Europe’s leading Paleolithic specialists and the premier expert on Central and Eastern Europe. This eminence, however, was borne with gentlemanly grace and quiet confidence.
In addition to being a world-class scholar, Klima was an unparalleled colleague and mentor. His gracious office and home at Dolni Vestonice were always open to Czech and foreign researchers who benefited from his erudition, wisdom and oneological prize-winning expertise. We can attest to his scholarly and intellectual magnanimity and openness to new ideas and interpretations, and our palates and those of countless other archaeologists can also vouch for the superiority of his “Mammoth Blood.” His well-deserved expertise was not exclusionary, but always open to new ideas and interpretations. Klima likely knew more than anyone about the Upper Paleolithic of Central Europe, but was always open to learning more.
Although Klima’s death marks the passing of an intellectual giant—indeed a classic European scholar—the trajectory of scholarship which he forged will flourish at Dukla in the work of the younger generation of Moravian experts trained or influenced by him. (Olga Soffer and James M Adovasio)

KOENTJARANINGRAT, 76, dean of Indonesian anthropologists, died in Jakarta, March 24, 1999. A paragon of teaching, research and service, he had strength, commitment and kindness. Born June 15, 1923, in Yogyakarta, Koentjaranin grat bore a noble title, the initials of which, R M (Raden Mas), sometimes preface his one name. In 1950, the first year of the Republic of Indonesia, he was an early graduate of Yogya’s Gadjah Mada U (founded 1946). Among the first Indonesians to study in the US, he earned an MA at Yale in 1956. His thesis, A Preliminary Description of the Javanese Kinship System, was published there (1957). With him in New Haven and her in Jakarta, he married his life companion and survivor, Stien, to whom his first and last books were dedicated.
Koentjaraningrat returned to the U of Indo nesia for his doctorate. His published dissertation (1958) surveyed anthropological methods used in previous cultural studies in Indonesia. Further research led to the much expanded Anthropology in Indonesia: A Bibliographical Review published in English in the Netherlands (1975). In the meantime fieldwork in Java led to Some Social-Anthropological Observations on Gotong Royong [Mu tual Aid] Practices in Two Villages of Central Java (1961), which placed the political-ideological notion of “mutual aid” in real ethnographic contexts, and he edited the first book of Indo nesian community studies, Villages of Indonesia (1967).
By the late 1980s Koentjaraningrat had published some 80 articles in Indonesian and overseas journals and written or edited over 22 books on diverse topics. His ethnographic focus was Java, culminating in Javanese Culture (1985), but he guided students and others in fieldwork in Irian Jaya and did research once in rural Netherlands.
Koentjaraningrat applied American and Dutch cultural anthropological approaches to understanding continuity and change in Indonesia and its many socioeconomic problems. Even during tumultuous times and often deteriorating academic conditions, he steadfastly researched, wrote, taught and promoted the studies and careers of new generations of Indonesian academics and others. He strove to strengthen cultural anthropology at his university and expand it to other ones; he contributed mightily to the Indonesian Institute of Sciences, the Social Science Consortium and other organizations; and he worked through the Dutch-Indonesian Cultural Accord to reestablish cultural links be tween the two nations. Over the decades Koentjaraningrat was visiting professor at Utrecht U, U of Illinois, Ohio U and Australian National U; and in 1976 he received a Doctor Honoris Causa degree from Utrecht U. He was noted for his generous friendship and help to foreign scholars working in Indonesia.
On August 25-28, 1997 in Jakarta, he was surrounded by former students and honored by them and other colleagues at the First National Anthropology Workshop held by the revived Indonesian Anthropology Association, at which he was an active participant despite frail health. In an obituary, a former student and colleague, Parsudi Suparlan, noted, “It was probably at this time that he felt the high point of his happiness as a teacher.” (Clark E Cunningham)

ARTHUR C LEHMANN, 64, passed away on September 18, 1999, at his home in Chico, CA, after a long battle with cancer. Lehmann was Professor of Anthropology at California State U, Chico, and is probably best known for his anthropology of religion text, Magic, Witchcraft, and Religion: An Anthropological Study of the Supernatural (co-authored with James). He was working on the 5th edition at the time of his death.
Born on February 11, 1935 in Newcastle, IN, Lehmann received his BA (1959) and MA (1961) in history at Indiana State U, Terre Haute and PhD (1973) in anthropology at the U of Indiana, Bloomington. He started his university teaching career at California State U, Chico in 1969 and was chair of the department between 1976 and 1985. He also chaired the geography department for one year. He was instrumental in establishing the African Studies Program at Chico and was its coordinator for several years (1971-74).
Lehmann loved the informal nature of ethnographic fieldwork and did not let the effects of polio, which he contracted in his youth, or cancer stop him from conducting fieldwork in difficult settings. Most of his fieldwork was conducted with foragers and farmers in the tropical forests of Central Africa, but he also made trips to East and West Africa and Jamaica. He was particularly interested in non-Western healing systems, art and traditional architecture, and ethnographic film-making. His publications include: “Eyes of the ngangas: Ethnomedicine and power in the Central African Republic” (in the edited volume mentioned above), and “Aggression, bravery, endurance and drugs: A radical reevaluation and analysis of the Maasai warrior complex” (Ethnol ogy 12, pp 335-47). He devoted several field trips to making ethnographic films and had nearly completed films on African healers and Obeah men in Jamaica.
While Lehmann may be best remembered in the broader academic community for his religion textbook, he will be dearly missed and remembered by those who knew him as a person with a legendary sense of humor and as a person who was able to confer a sense of dignity on all who came into contact with him. (Barry Hewlett)

DOUGLAS LAVAN MARTINEAU, 68, specialist in petroglyphs, died on February 26, 2000, at home in his trailer while visiting with his daughter in St George, UT. Born January 3, 1932 in Kanab, UT, to Amon Douglas Martineau and Mavis Soren son, Martineau married Doris Dorene Kanosh in 1954 in Moab, UT. She died giving birth to their son, LaVan Jr in 1958 and he later married Evaline Mae McFee in 1962. She preceded him in death in 1996.
After his father died in 1950, Martineau was raised by Edrick Bushead, a Paiute who lived at the Cedar City Indian Village. He grew up learning the language and culture and later married into the tribe. He served in the US Air Force during the Korean War as an air traffic control operator.
Martineau was an author with several books under the publication of KC Publications, his best known work being The Rocks Begin to Speak and The Southern Paiutes. He also did work on Indian sign language, Indian archery and his most re cent book, The Great Migrations and the Indian Prophecies, is still in the publishing process. He was greatly admired for his interpretation of petroglyphs. He combined his knowledge of spoken Indian languages, Indian sign language, the histories of the tribes and the best ethnographic background possible with thousands of observations and then attempted a self-consistent, logical system of the meaning of the symbols. It is hoped that his family will place his papers where they will be available for future scholarly study.
Martineau had many interests, his favorite being his love for the great outdoors and travel worldwide to learn about the different cultures of the North American Indians. He was a warrior in life, always searching for new battles to conquer and ways to preserve the culture of others so that they might have knowledge for generations to come.
Martineau is survived by daughters Carmen Martineau, Shanandoah Martineau, Jetta Wood and Dorena Martineau, and five grandchildren. (Farrel W Lytle)

JAMES V NEEL, 84, died February 1, 2000, in Ann Arbor, MI. One of the nation’s foremost human geneticists, Neel had a profound impact on the development of contemporary biological anthropology. Most notable were his widely admired studies on relatively unacculturated Amazonian populations. Partly as a result the Yanomama became anthropology’s best known indigenous population, and still represent the best example of how local sociocultural and demo graphic factors are ultimately responsible for the distribution of human genetic variation. Neel emphasized that the role of genes in human well-being required an appreciation for how evolutionary forces had shaped patterns of human variation and that this could only be understood in the context of the human constructed environment.
Neel was born March 22, 1905, in Hamilton, OH, and received his PhD and MD from the U of Rochester. He married Priscilla Baxter (1943), and they raised three children. He taught briefly at Dartmouth before taking his position at Michi gan, where he founded the Department of Hu man Genetics, one of the first in the country. Neel was one of the founders of the American Society of Human Genetics and its journal. His career was recognised by numerous honors, including membership in the National Academy of Sciences.
With Francisco Salzano and Ramiro Barrantes, Neel was the driving force behind a series of biological studies on more than 20 different Amer indian populations. The results showed that most genetic variation occurs within local groups, rather than among continental populations, a finding that helped discredit the notion of categorical human races. His work on tribal populations demonstrated the importance of cultural factors in influencing the distribution of genetic variation, as well as defining the basic physiology that likely characterized our ancestors.
Many of Neel’s contributions were so fundamental that they are now implicitly incorporated into the fabric of anthropological theory. He used genetic principles to work out the inheritance of sickle cell disease and the sickling trait, which provided the foundation for identifying the im portance of malaria as a selective agent in human history. Neel was heavily involved in plotting the footprints of natural selection throughout Africa, and formulated the hypothesis that diabetes might be due to a metabolically “thrifty,” genotype that is deleterious in conditions of nutritional surfeit. This concept grew from his insight that our genome evolved under conditions different from the contemporary environment created by cultural manipulation. This is becoming one of the most influential concepts in attempts to understand how genetic variation influences risk of disease.
Neel played a vital role in organizing the still-ongoing studies of the mutational effects of exposure to radiation in the survivors of the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Neel and his colleagues made substantial and long-lasting contributions to anthropology. He was an important role model for budding anthropologists.
More on his life and work can be found in his autobiography (Physician to the Gene Pool: Genetic Lessons and other Stories, 1994) and our perspective (K Weiss, R Ward, “J V Neel,” Am J Hum Gent 66, 2000, pp 755-60). (RH Ward and KM Weiss)

JOSEPH MELVILLE SEE, JR, 61, died March 19, 2000 at his home in Tucson, AZ, of a gunshot wound, just one month short of his 62nd birthday. See was born April 19, 1938 in Albany, NY, and grew up in Scarsdale. His parents, Joseph Melville and Matilde Pilger See, traced their ancestry to the earliest Dutch settlement of the Hudson Valley. Although his father, an insurance executive, died when See was very young, he served as a model of a life of adventure because he had joined the French Foreign Legion to serve in the Lafayette Escadrille early in World War One. See graduated from Princeton in 1960 with a degree in geology, went on to graduate work at the U of New Mexico and then to the U of Arizona, where he earned an MA in geology (1965). See was attracted to geology because as one of the last great exploring disciplines it offered a life of risk and adventure. His first employment involved geological and mining exploration in eastern and southern Africa. While at Princeton, he met Linda Eastman whom he married. Their daughter Heather was born in 1963 and they divorced soon after. Linda married Paul McCartney, but See never remarried. Soon after moving to Arizona, he became interested in both photography and the native peoples of the Greater Southwest. He developed his photographic skills and soon was deeply involved in ethnographic filmmaking. He was a perceptive observer of other cultures and produced many dramatic and moving images. He continued to work as an exploration geologist to support himself and for many years was involved in assessing the economic potential of long-abandoned mines, especially in South America. Increasingly, however, he devoted his time and efforts to filmmaking and the study of indigenous art in northern Mexico. In the early 1980s, after the death of his mother, See received a modest inheritance that allowed him to devote full time to these interests. He made films of the Huichol, Seri, Tarahumara and Tepehuan in Mexico and the Tuareg in north Africa, several of which were screened nationally on PBS. He helped Tepehuan leaders to revive old ceremonies by sharing with them the details of J Alden Mason’s research among the Tepehuan early in the last century. There is a large collection of his Huichol, Seri, Tarahumara, Tepehuan and Yaqui images in the Photographic Archives of the Arizona State Museum at the U of Arizona. (Raymond H Thompson)

WILLIAM A SHACK, 76, distinguished Afri can ist and Professor Emeritus, U of California, Berkeley, died March 31, 2000, after a battle with cancer. In his last months, with the assistance of his wife Dorothy Nash Shack, he revised his book on African American musicians in Paris 1918-39 (in press). Shack thus returned to his early interest in the urban migration of African Americans. Between the 1955-57 research in Chicago and the 1990s research in archives in Paris, London and the US, Shack had a career which included field research in Ethiopia and Swaziland, teaching in African universities and the U of Illinois, Chicago Circle and U of California, Berkeley, and service on professional boards and as Dean of the Berkeley Graduate School. How well he did this last is attested to by the many campus and national committees on graduate affairs on which he served. He was known as fair-minded, imaginative, critical and helpful. Few understood the breadth of his experience or all that lay behind his appraisal of situations and people.
Born in Chicago, April 19, 1923, Shack served in the US Navy during World War II, then entered the School of the Art Institute, Chicago (BA,1955). He might have become a painter, but his desire to understand the social pressures of the time and a summer in Social Relations at Harvard U brought him into anthropology. He did an MA in social anthropology at the U of Chicago before leaving for Ethiopia for fieldwork among the Gurage, a people notable for their reliance on the ensete plant as staple food. Chicago had close links with British social anthropology and Shack chose to do his PhD at the London School of Economics under Lucy Mair and Isaac Schapera. Shack returned to Ethiopia to teach at the U College of Addis Ababa, Haile Selassie U (1962-65), where created its department of sociology. The violent death of many of his associates during Ethiopia’s years of trouble alienated him from the new regime and he felt unable to return there for further research. Eventually he found it hard to write ethnographically about a people whom he knew to be undergoing great suffering and abandoned his book on Gurage religion.
Shack’s books include: The Gurage (1966), The Central Ethiopians: Amhara,Tigrinya and Related Peoples (1974), co-authored Gods and Heroes: Oral Traditions of the Gurages of Ethiopia (1974), The Kula (1986), and co-edited Strangers in African Societies (1979) and Politics in Leadership (1986). He served on the Executive Council of the Inter national African Institute. The French Govern ment honored him as Chevalier de l’Ordre National du Merite. He held the Berkeley Citation and the Distinguished Service Award of the U of Chicago Alumni Association. At the 1996 AAA annual meeting, former students organized a panel “African Urban Anthropology and Beyond” that spoke to the continued influence of his thinking. Throughout his career he had the companionship of his wife and their son Hailu, who shared in his multifaceted interests which included painting and music, sports cars, university politics and cooking. (Elizabeth Colson and Suzanne Calpestri)

EDWIN M SHOOK, 88, Maya archaeology’s Four Katun Ahaw, died at home in Antigua, Gua te mala on March 9, 2000. Shook was among the most prodigiously active figures in Mesoamerican archaeology during the 20th century, with a career spanning over 60 years. He was a friend and mentor to many generations of Meso-american field workers in archaeology, ethnography and the natural sciences.
Shook was born on November 22, 1911, in Newton, NC Carolina. At the age of 22 he turned a chance encounter into a job as draftsman with the Carnegie Institute of Washington. He went on to become an archaeologist in the legendary Division of Historical Research of the CIW, making his first trip to Central America in 1934. Shook continued with the Carnegie until the Division of Historical Research was disbanded in 1958. During those years he worked at scores of sites in the Maya territory and lower Central America. He was a pioneer in research on the Guatemalan highlands and the Pacific coast. Shook’s labors at Kaminaljuyu were essential in documenting that major Maya city and preserving its legacy before it was swamped by the expansion of Guatemala City.
In 1955, following the final Carnegie project at Mayapan, Shook accepted a position with the U of Pennsylvania as director of the Tikal project. For nine years he led what was, at the time, the largest archaeological project in the New World. At Tikal, he was responsible for many of the greatest archaeological discoveries of the 20th century, and for training a generation of lowland Maya field workers.
Following Tikal, Shook went on to work in Costa Rica before eventually returning to Guatemala in 1968 to direct the Monte Alto Project on the Pacific Coast. In the 1970s and 1980s he continued his work on the Pacific Coast and Guatemalan highlands, producing important works on Formative period sites such as La Blanca and Salinas la Blanca, among others. Shook was still publishing in 1999, when he was stricken with pneumonia.
In addition to his scholarly activities, Shook was proud of the contributions he made to his adopted country, Guatemala. He was instrumental in the establishment of Guatemala’s first national park, at Tikal. He was also a principal in the founding of the American School and the Universidad del Valle de Guatemala. For his many contributions, Shook was awarded the Order of the Quetzal by the Guatemalan government (1963). In 1989 he was made Doctor Honoris Causa by the Universidad del Valle de Guatemala.
Shook’s wife of 54 years, Virginia Barr Shook, died in 1990. He is survived by three sons: Edwin M Shook, Jr, Stephen H Shook and John A Shook, along with six grandchildren.
Memorial donations may be made to the Virginia B Shook Library of the Universidad del Valle de Guatemala, c/o the US Foundation of the Valley of Guatemala, Kirby & Hornbuckle, CPA, PC, 214 College Ave, Elmira, NY 14901. (Michael Love)

RUTH DEETTE SIMPSON, 81, one of California archaeology’s few female pioneer archaeologists, died on January 19, 2000, in Redlands, CA. Simp son was a remarkable archaeologist, humanitarian and pioneer. She was a friend to the volunteers and associates who did not care if the ancient dates she proposed at the Calico Early Man Site, near Barstow, CA, mattered. What mattered to Dee, as she liked to be called, was that science was pursued for the sake of science.
Born May 6, 1918, in Pasadena, CA, Simpson volunteered at the Southwest Museum as a high school student. She received her MA in anthropology and geology from the U of Southern California (1944). Following her mentor, Mark R Harrington, to Phoenix, AZ (1944), she was Curator at the Heard Museum for two years.
In 1946 Simpson returned to the Southwest Museum, where she began her search for early Americans. She was key in founding the first archaeological organization in California, the Archaeological Survey Association of Southern California, with a goal to inventory all of southern California. She became interested in the distribution of archaeological sites in the desert, particularly around the ancient playas that dot the Mojave.
In 1964, Gerald Smith lured Simpson to the San Bernardino County Museum as Curator of Archaeology. She retired from there in 1982, and instantly became the museum’s first “Curator Emeritus.” It was as an employee of the museum that her most famous adventures with “early man” occurred. She and her mother went to Great Britain with a handful of artifacts from the Calico Hills to visit Louis S B Leakey, who observed that they might have been from East Africa. Leakey visited Calico Hills and “suggested” that Simpson “put a unit there.” That suggestion kept her busy for the next 35 years.
The Calico Hills Archaeological Site was funded by the National Geographic Society (1964-68), as well as by the Wilke Brothers, Wenner-Gren, Skaggs, Ava Geg-gugahard and the LSB Leakey Foundations. In 1984 the Society for American Archaeology recognized Simpson for her “Outstanding Contributions to American Archaeology.” In 1995, a symposium for her was held at the Society for California Archaeology Annual Meeting, marking her 60 years in archaeology.
The years from 1995 to 2000 were a struggle for Simpson. Accidents took their toll, funding was not what she desired, and questions about the dating of the artifacts—whether they were artifacts at all—persisted. One of her last achievements was knowing that a thermo-luminescence date of a Clovis-like biface was 14,800 BP ± 2,000. Not as old as she would have liked, but old enough to keep it in the arena of ancient Americans.
Congressman Jerry Lewis (R), Redlands is considering funding the Calico Hills Archaeological Facility in the FY 2001 budget. The funding would construct a Dee Simpson Curation facility and develop interpretive displays. Phone calls, email or written requests to support the requested $600,000 will honor one of America’s pioneer archaeologists and help fulfill one of her dreams. (Russell L Kaldenberg)

LAURA M THOMPSON, 95, distinguished sociocultural anthropologist who studied peoples and cultures in wide-ranging geographic locations and contributed significantly to the development of applied anthropology, passed away on January 29, 2000, in Honolulu, HI. Her husband Sam van Heemskerck Duker, a childhood classmate at Punahou School, died in 1978.
Thompson was born in Honolulu on January 23, 1905. She received her BA from Mills C, PhD in anthropology from the U of California, Berkeley, and an honorary LLD from Mills C. She also did graduate work at Radcliffe. Thompson was the 1979 recipient of the Bronislaw Mali now ski Award from the Society for Applied Anthropology.
Thompson published nine books and more than 70 articles in professional journals. She wrote in her autobiography, Beyond The Dream: A Search For Meaning (1991) that she was one of “Kroeber’s girls,” young women who became known for their “farflung explorations in various parts of the world.”
Thompson conducted fieldwork in Fiji and Guam in her earlier years and was on the staff at the Bernice P Bishop Museum in Honolulu (1929-34). In the late 1930s, Thompson lived in Germany with her first husband, where she experienced for herself something of National Socialism.
In the 1940s, while holding a research position via the U of Chicago’s Committee on Human Development, Thompson undertook research among Native Americans, particularly the Hopi, as a member of a multi-disciplinary research team. During this time, she was married to then Commissioner of Indian Affairs, John Collier.
From the 1950s Thompson taught at the U of North Carolina, North Carolina State C, City College and Brooklyn C of CUNY, Southern Illinois U, San Francisco State U and the U of Hawaii. She also conducted fieldwork in Iceland.
Thompson maintained a lifelong interest in the people and culture of Guam. The Honorable Robert A Underwood of Guam introduced into the Congressional Record in the US House of Representatives (February 8, 2000) his lengthy accolade to Thompson. The opening paragraph of his tribute contains the following: “For the people of Guam and researchers everywhere, [Thompson’s book] Guam and Its People is the seminal work on the essence of the Chamorro culture. She was the first anthropologist to formally study the culture of the people of Guam and every student, researcher or any person interested in serious thinking about Guam must begin by reading and understanding her work.” Guam’s Governor Carl T C Gutierrez awarded Thompson posthumously the Ancient Order of the Chamorri.
In her autobiography, Thompson draws on her field research findings over the years to set forth creative and heartfelt responses to human problems of modern times: “An updated code of global ethics based on respect for nature’s laws could spark a unified, planet-spanning endeavor to regenerate and foster the Earth. The task would involve local, national and international cooperation in a pan-global endeavor to understand, explain and support the natural vibratory pro cesses that build, balance and uphold the living planet” (p 144).
Thompson is survived by nieces Laura Good and Alice Broderick, and granddaughter Marcella Moran. (Rebecca A Stephenson)

W D HAMILTON, 63, evolutionary biologist, died March 7, 2000. One of the leaders of what has been called “the second Darwinian revolution,” Hamilton was called by Richard Dawkins (The Selfish Gene) one of the most important Darwinians of the 20th century. He taught at Oxford for his last 15 years and proposed the theory of kin selection as an explanation of why animals are sometimes altruistic towards each other, despite the struggle for the survival of the fittest. He then moved on to the difficult problem of the evolution of sex from asexual reproduction, and proposed the now widely discussed parasite theory.

SVEN LILJEBLAD, 100, authority on the Shoshonean-speaking Natives of the Inter moun tain West, died on March 17, 2000, in Solna, Sweden. Liljeblad came to the US in 1940 to trace the Uto-Aztecan Shoshonean language group (including Utes, Paiutes, Shoshones, Banocks, Commanches, Panamints and Kawaiisu). Much of his work through the early 1970s was done at Idaho State U, then into the 1990s at the U of Nevada, Reno. He is survived by his wife, Astrid Von Heijne.

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