OLEG VIKTOROVICH BYCHKOV, 40, died December 27, 1999, as the result of an accident suffered while working on his nearly finished house in the outskirts of Irkutsk in southern Siberia. Born in that city in 1959, Bychkov graduated in 1983 from Leningrad U, then held positions in Irkutsk museums. He conducted social impact analyses and more traditional ethnographic research in Irkutsk, Krasnoyarsk and Kemerovo provinces.
In 1988 Bychkov was appointed Science Director of the Irkutsk Regional Museum, and the following year was awarded the advanced degree of Kandidat by the Institute of Ethnography, Soviet Academy of Sciences; his thesis was on descendent communities of the earliest Russian settlers in the Irkutsk region. That year he made contact with the U of Oregon Museum of Natural History and the Anchorage Museum of History and Art to which he shepherded collections for its exhibit “Russian America: Forgotten Fron tiers.”
In 1991 Bychkov gave up his position as Science Director on the grounds that it was too confining. With support from IREX, in 1992 he lived for short periods with member families of the Klamath Tribe and the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation, both in Oregon, from which he derived comparisons with conditions of small Native groups in Siberia. In 1993 he held a month’s fellowship at Fort Ross, the one-time Russian post in California. He was able to participate in meetings of the Alaska Anthro po logical Association, AAA and a major symposium on “The North Pacific in the 17th Century” at the Oregon Historical Society in Portland. Publica tions were chiefly in Russian, a few in English, their major attention on the position of aboriginal ethnic minorities in Siberia (eg, Cultural Survival Quarterly, vol 16, no 1, 1992).
In Irkutsk, Bychkov established a modest ethnographic research organization for contract research as state communism gave way to private entrepreneurship, for a short time was political advisor to the governor of Irkutsk Oblast, consul ted for a documentary film on indigenous peoples of Japan and Russia, and was consultant to an independent Irkutsk television station, emphasizing relationships with Native peoples. He arranged loans for the Anchorage Museum’s exhibit “Heaven on Earth: Treasures of Siberia and North America,” which was held (1994-96) to mark the 200th anniversary of the Orthodox presence in North America and later traveled through the US. He promoted two separate photographic exhibits on Siberian Native peoples at the U of Oregon Museum of Natural History. In at least three separate years he made possible joint visits of Russian and American scholars to isolated Siberian villages of Evenk and Tofalar peoples, in areas previously off-limits to foreigners.
A projected book on early Russians in Siberia, Russian Hunters in the Siberian Taiga, the expansion of a paper Bychkov had published in Arctic Anthropology (vol 31, no 1, 1994), that would emphasize customs adopted from Native inhabitants, remains unfinished—like the home on which he had worked for the past several years. (Don E Dumond)

RICHARD GEORGE FORBIS, 75, pioneering plains archaeologist and prehistorian, died October 2, 1999, of throat cancer in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Born July 30, 1924, in Missoula, MT, Forbis attended Montana State U, Missoula for one year before being drafted into the US Army (1943). He served with the 75th Division during the Battle of the Bulge, and was seriously wounded in April 1945.
Forbis returned to the U of Montana, where he was mentored by Carling I Malouf. After earning his BA (1949) and MA (1950) in anthropology, he attended Columbia U (PhD 1955). His dissertation was based on investigations of the stratified MacHaffie Paleoindian occupation site near Helena; he and coworker John D Sperry published a preliminary report in 1952.
Forbis’ career took a significant turn in 1957 when Eric Harvie, a successful lawyer-oilman cum philanthropist based in Calgary, selected him as the archaeological anthropologist to develop an archaeological research program in the Harvie-created Glenbow Foundation. Later, in the face of promising programmatic developments and research opportunities at the growing U of Calgary, Forbis became part of that transformation. He taught first as a part-time Assistant Professor, becoming fulltime in 1965 as Associate Professor of Archaeology, and retired as Professor Emeritus in 1988.
Harvie funded Forbis’ projects through 1966. Forbis and H M Wormington published the introduction to the prehistoric archaeology of Alberta (1965). His principal research interests were early man, archaeology of North America, the northern Great Plains, communal hunting, human adaptations to grasslands and protohistory. Interest in communal hunting and human adaptations to grasslands led Forbis to field research in Argentina, Mexico, Peru and China. He excavated among others, the Old Women’s Buffalo Jump and Head-Smashed-In Buffalo Jump site. Forbis supported the scientific development and provincial acquisition of Head-Smashed-In, now a UNESCO World Heritage site in southwestern Alberta.
Forbis and Richard “Scotty” MacNeish created the U of Alberta, Calgary, Department of Archaeology, the first in North America. He pioneered development of the Alberta Historical Resources Act; served as a visiting senior scientist, National Museum of Man, Ottawa (1970); was active as senior scientist and scholar on the Environment Conservation Authority of Alberta; served as chairman of the Public Advisory Committee on Historical and Archaeological Resources; and was a member on the Province of Alberta Historic Sites Board.
Forbis’ career involved persistent efforts to bridge what he was convinced was a 49th Parallel intellectual barrier that has long inhibited scientific interchange and dialogue. For that endeavor and other services to his profession, he received the Alberta Achievement Award, Canadian Archaeological Association’s Smith-Wintemberg Award, Society for American Archaeology’s 50th Anniversary Achievement Award, and the 1999 Plains Anthropological Society Distinguished Service Award. The Richard G Forbis Paleoindian Research Fund was established (1999) the Museum of the Rockies, Montana State U-Bozeman, to further investigations he initiated at the MacHaffie Paleoindian site a half century previously.
The appellation “Father of Alberta Archaeology” is a fitting characterization of Forbis’ pioneering contributions to Northern Plains archaeological science and public service in the name of American archaeology. (Leslie B Davis)

J JEFFERSON “JEFF” MACKINNON, 55, Collin County Community College professor of anthropology, died in Belize on December 21, 1999. MacKinnon left his mark both on the college where he was coordinator of anthropology and on the country where he made his most noteworthy discoveries. He made international news in 1986 when he led a research team that discovered the previously unknown Mayan city of Chachben Kax in the jungles of Belize, not far inland from the Atlantic coast of Central America. At the time, MacKinnon was a doctoral candidate in anthropology at the U of Wisconsin.
Over the ensuing 13 years, MacKinnon returned to Belize numerous times to develop the site as a resource for the local population. Since arriving at Collin County CC in 1993, he too more than 600 students to the site for digging and development. Far from being a snatch-and-grab archaeologist, MacKinnon shaped his project to develop the site as an income producer for the local residents. He made it a point, for example, to get insulin testing equipment for his Belizian foreman’s wife, and hoped to start a horseback riding enterprise to the ruins and the jaguar preserve with camping facilities, so the Mayans could make a profit. He also donated uniforms to the Placencia Soccer Club and the Maya Mopan Christian School.
In addition to his archaeological field experience in four US states and two foreign countries, MacKinnon taught courses on such diverse subjects as the US in Vietnam, ancient Egypt, Hebrew and Semitic studies, African literature and language, the cultures of Greece, antebellum South, American Indian, medieval and renaissance dance and forensic anthropology. He directed a Scottish folk and dance group, played bagpipes, tutored disabled students and prepared museum exhibits on traditional women’s garments of Guatemala.
At Collin County CC, MacKinnon was coordinator of the anthropology program and faculty advisor for the student chapter of Amnesty International. He helped found the North Cen tral Texas Anthropological Society and encouraged the study and preservation of archaeology within the local area as well as in Central America. He was highly regarded by his many students. According to student Shane Evanyk, “He taught me with great detail procedures in archaeology and anthropology, and by helping me was a backbone for me in Olympic-style weightlifting. It is quite simple. I may be able to lift huge amounts of weight when needed, but I could not have started without Dr Jeff MacKinnon first lifting the kindling and refueling my dreams, both scholastic and athletic.”
MacKinnon was buried in his hometown of Flint, MI, where he taught high school for 11 years. He was the outstanding Wisconsin public school teacher in the Humanities (1968) and was included in Who’s Who Among American Teachers (1998).
Jefferson MacKinnon is survived by his wife, Collin County CC sociology instructor Carol Key, his son, Ian, and daughter, Elizabeth Cory Sills. (Temple Pouncey)

HILDEGARD E PANG, 65, died on August 16, 1999, three months after she had retired as Professor of Anthropology at Indiana State U in Terre Haute, and two months after she was diagnosed with ovarian cancer. Known professionally for her studies of Latin American archeology and textiles and Mayan glyphs, Pang was the author of Pre-Columbian Art: Investigations and Insights (1992) and was preparing a manuscript on Native American Art and Culture at the time of her death.
Born October 21, 1933 to German immigrant parents who conveyed to her their strong ethical standards, dedicated humanism and love of na ture, Pang studied music, history and political science at Brerea C in Kentucky, graduating with a BA (1956). The following year she began a series of assignments researching Pre-Columbian textiles, engaging in archeological research in Mexico and teaching anthropology in the Midwest. She re ceived her PhD in anthropology from Indiana U (1963), and began teaching at Indiana State U in 1966.
Throughout her career, Pang presented dozens of papers on diverse subjects at conferences and seminars and published widely on Mesoameri can, Japanese and African textiles and weaving. Perhaps her greatest achievement to the discipline was her ability to combine research on a specific subject with study of the artistic and cultural context.
But Pang’s major passion was for her students to whom she devoted not only the benefit of her vast knowledge of the art and culture of Mexico, Africa and indigenous people throughout the world, but also her love, creativity and concern in helping them understand devotion to the environment, ethical treatment of the planet and interest in all aspects of human existence. The last thing she wrote was “To my beloved Anthro students: As a future teacher or researcher, you be come a teacher, one of the sacred professions, and part of this centuries old, international community of creators and scholars who continue to pass along human knowledge and respect in the midst of an increasingly crass, materialistic world.”
Pang did not just talk about these ideas: she exemplified them in her own life. She truly lived her high principles, avoiding any kind of wastefulness, organizing recycling centers and riding her bike everywhere as a personal attempt to save fuel and the environment—and improve her own health.
Pang was preceded in death by her beloved husband, Kai Pang, but leaves daughter Cathy McNamara, two grandsons and a large community of colleagues, students and admirers who will lovingly remember her wisdom and true goodness of spirit. (Harriet McNeal)

ROGER T SAUCIER, 64, died on October 26, 1999, at his home in Vicksburg, MS. Although retired from his nearly 40-year career with the Corps of Engineers, Saucier was actively engaged in archaeological and geological consulting and was serving as president of the Louisiana Archaeological Society. Saucier’s professional contributions spanned the geology and archaeology of the Mississippi River Valley. He was widely respected for his ability to cross intellectual and professional boundaries and for his meticulous, far-ranging and innovative contributions to both fields. Although he never held a faculty post, Saucier had a remarkable influence on the development of archaeology and geomorphology in the Mississippi Valley and helped train a generation of archaeologists and geologists.
Born in New Orleans, Saucier received his initial undergraduate training in geography at Louisiana State U (BA, 1957; MA 1958). In 1959 he became an employee of the Coastal Studies Institute, where he worked on his first major monograph, Geological History of the Lake Pontchartrain Basin, Louisiana (1963). He took a job with the US Army Engineers Waterways Experiment Station (1961), where he rose from Research Geographer to Program Manager in the Environmental Lab by his retirement (1994). By the time Saucier received his PhD in anthropology and geography (LSU, 1968), he was already a major contributor to both geology and archaeology. With Sherwood Gagliano, Saucier published an article in American Antiquity(1963)demonstrating the presence of Late Archaic (Poverty Point) occupations in the Mississippi Delta region. He helped Clarence Webb and James Ford at Poverty Point, and did fieldwork with Ford during his Dalton surveys. His path-breaking monographs on the geological history of the region (1974; 1994) applied a sophisticated understanding of geology, geomorphology and archaeological data to place Quaternary river evolution in a framework that is still state of the art.
Saucier believed archaeological data could be used to understand the geological evolution of the Mississippi Valley. He applied his knowledge of both fields to understand the expansion of early Holocene settlement in Southeast Missouri and Northeast Arkansas, to the development of Late Archaic cultures in Mississippi and Louisiana, and to site specific problems in later time periods. His use of archaeological data for geological problems was innovative, using it to date earthquake episodes in the New Madrid fault zone of Missouri and trace landform evolution in northeast Louisiana and meander belt sequences in west central Mississippi.
The significance of Saucier’s work was recognized by the Society for American Archaeology, which awarded him the Fryxell Prize for interdisciplinary research (1985). The Geological Society of America presented him with the Kirk Bryan award (1996) for his monograph on the Geology and Geomorphology of the Mississippi Valley and the E B Burwell Award (1998). Elected president of the Louisiana Archaeological Society in 1998, he made a point to contribute to Louisiana Archaeology and other state archaeological journals. You could always disagree with Saucier, but no one who worked with him could do anything but hold him in the highest respect. (Tristram R Kidder)

ALLAN H SMITH, 85, passed away on September 27, 1999 and will be remembered as one of the early Plateau ethnographers, an able administrator and a father figure to many who are now senior faculty. Born on September 8, 1913 in Norwood, PA, Smith attended Yale receiving a degrees in anthropology (BA 1935; PhD 1941). His dissertation, “Dynamics of Cultural Diffusion in the Plateau Area of North America” was based on studies among the Kalispel Indians in northeastern Washington (1936-38). While working on his doctorate, Smith also taught at the U of Texas (1939-42). He served as a Japanese Language Officer in the central and western Pacific in the US Navy (1943-46), and was awarded the Purple Heart. In 1947, with his wife Ann Gertrude, Smith moved to Pullman, WA to join the Department of Sociology at Washington State College (now Washington State U) as an associate professor of anthropology. Two years later he was granted a year’s leave to conduct ethnological research in the southern part of Ryukyu Island. In 1951-52 he served as the Ryukyu Civil Administration Advisor to Ryukyu U and as the Anthropology Adviser to Ryukyu Army Command. From 1954-55 he served as Staff Anthropologist on the Advisory Board of the High Commissioner of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands in Honolulu. Smith served as the Director of Programs in Anthropology in the NSF (1963-65). Following his return to WSU in 1965, the doctoral degree in anthropology was approved and a separate Department of Anthropology created. Smith served as the first chairman until 1969 when he became Vice-President, Academic, WSU. He served in that position until his retirement in 1978.
Smith’s early publications focused on the Ryukyu Islands. He reported on anthropological research conducted in the Ryukyu Islands, For mosa and general Micronesia for Asian Perspectives throughout the 1950s and 1960s and was editor of Ryukyuan Culture and Society (1962). His interest in the Pacific Northwest, however, did not wane for during the 1960s he undertook an extensive study of the travels of David Thompson linking his place names to specific map locations and tribal groups which resulted in several publications. Following his belief that anthropology was a unified discipline, Smith worked closely with archaeologists in the Pacific Northwest. His Ethnographic Guide to the Archaeology of Mount Rainier National Park prepared for the National Park Service (1964) is a splendid example. Following retirement in 1978, Smith remained active. Two major publications, Kutenai Indian Subsistence and Settlement Patterns, Center for Northwest Anthropology, WSU, Project Report 2 (1984) and Ethnography of the North Cascades, Center for Northwest Anthropology, WSU, Project Report 7 (1988) are his final contributions.
Smith was a meticulous scholar who utilized historical sources as a means for delving further into the cultures of the Plateau peoples prior to the impact of white settlement. Smith was a fine colleague, a very able administrator and a person whose efforts made the department and the university a better place. (R E Ackerman)

M N SRINIVAS, 83, died after a short illness in Bangalore, India, on November 30, 1999. He had been working on a regular basis to complete writing his memoirs, and was still active at the National Institute of Advanced Studies.
In the eyes of most students of South Asian society, Srinivas was India’s pre-eminent anthropologist. Prime Minister A B Vajpayee said as much when he mourned “the doyen of social anthropology.” It was Srinivas and his numerous students—among them A M Shah and André Béteille—who led in the formulation of the modern understanding of caste society, and did so much to make the Indian government aware of the country’s social structure and its policy implications. Srinivas was acutely concerned with the plight of India’s hundreds of millions of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, and with the disparity between their social status and that of the higher castes.
Srinivas was born November 16, 1916 in My sore City, where his family lived close to two other prominent Tamil Brahmin families, those which included A K Ramanujan and novelist R K Narayan. Srinivas attended Maharaja’s C, Mysore, for his undergraduate training in social philosophy, then proceeded to Bombay U to pursue sociology and a law degree. Under the influence of G S Ghurye he completed a PhD in sociology with a study on marriage and family in Mysore State. At the time of World War II Srinivas got the opportunity to attend Oxford, where he studied anthropology under Radcliffe-Brown and Evans-Pritchard. Following the award of Dlitt for his study published as Religion and Society among the Coorgs of South India (1952), Srinivas was briefly a lecturer in Indian anthropology at Oxford, then lecturer in the newly formed department at Manchester U, where he was close to Max Gluckman and several others.
In 1951 when Srinivas was invited to take up the first chair of sociology at the MS U of Baroda (now Vadodara), he decided to return to India. In 1959 he left Baroda to assume the newly established chair of sociology in the Delhi School of Economics, doubtless the most prestigious position in the Indian social sciences, where he was to teach and direct research for many years.
In 1972, when a well known academic, V K R V Rao invited Srinivas to help start a new research institute in Bangalore, Srinivas moved to the Institute for Social and Economic Change in that year, remaining until 1979 as a senior fellow in the Centre for Sociology. After what would have been a well earned retirement for anyone else, Srinivas moved to the National Institute of Advanced Studies, also in Bangalore, where he re mained as visiting professor until his death.
Srinivas’ numerous publications include several important and well received books: Caste in Modern India and Other Essays (1962); Social Change in Modern India (1962); and The Remem bered Village (1976). He is survived by his wife Rukka and by daughters Lakshmi and Tulasi. (Paul Hockings) 

DANIEL SHAW MATSON, 91, died February 1, 2000, in Cameron, MO. He was born in Mediapolis, IA, May 17, 1908. His mother died when he was four and his father left the upbringing of his children to his sister, Bessey Higbee. Matson attended public schools in Iowa, Illinois and Colorado, and graduated from high school in Douglas, AZ (1925). He worked in a drug store and a copper smelter to earn money to attend the U of Arizona, where he met Byron Cummings, Lyndon Hargrave and Emil Haury and developed an interest in anthropology. He earned a BA degree in education with a major in German (1929). For two years after graduation he taught the fifth grade in a segregated public school in Douglas.
An Episcopalian, Matson converted to Cath olicism and in 1931 went to California to become a Franciscan priest. He spent 1936–37 recuperating from tuberculosis. He held several pastoral and teaching jobs before serving as a Franciscan missionary to the Papago (now Tohono O’odham) Indians at San Solano Missions, Topawa, AZ. He became a skilled speaker of Papago and began serious study of the Piman languages. He left the Franciscans in 1945 to become a secular priest. After posts in California, New Mexico and Texas, he resigned from the priesthood in 1949. The following year he taught in a Bureau of Indian Affairs school in Sells, AZ, where he met and married Aneta Gail Hawks Scott. From 1950 to 1953 he was an Instructor in German at the U of Arizona and also began doctoral studies with summer sessions at UNAM (1951) and Stanford (1952). Matson attended divinity school in Berke ley (1953–54) and in 1954 returned to priestly duties in the Episcopal church in Williams, AZ, but had to resign because of poor health. After brief office employment in Tucson, he worked as a National Park Service Ranger in 1956 at El Morro National Monument, NM. He then be came a civilian employee of the Army at Fort Wingate, NM, and Fort Huachuca, AZ, until his retirement in 1979, when he was appointed Lecturer in Anthropology at the U of Arizona, where he introduced the first formal course in Papago.
Matson was mentor to Edward Spicer, William Kurath, Ken Hale, Ofelia Zepeda, David Shaul and other students of Piman languages. As early as 1952 he was using his languages (German, Spanish, Papago and Latin) to assist researchers working on the ethnohistory of the Southwest and northern Mexico. He collaborated with Charles Di Peso, Albert Schroeder, Bernard Fontana, Charles Polzer and others and became a key member of the translating and editing team for the Documentary Relations of the Southwest at the Arizona State Museum.
A quiet, modest, unassuming, gracious and generous man, Dan Matson published little of his extensive scholarly output himself. The legacy of his research is recorded in the warm acknowledgments of the many he helped. The Southwestern Mission Research Newsletter (March 2000) has a listing of his publications. (Raymond H Thompson; photograph by Helga Teiwes, courtesy of the Arizona State Museum, U of Arizona.)

ADRIAAN HENDRIK JOHAN PRINS, 78, Professor Emeritus of Cultural Anthropology at the Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, the Netherlands, died February 11, 2000, after five years of illness following a debilitating stroke. A pioneer in maritime anthropology and East African ethnography, Prins was born December 16, 1921, in the old Dutch port of Harderwijk.
Planning a career in the East Indies, Prins began his academic training in tropical forestry, but switched to social geography which he studied at Utrecht U. In 1942, two years after the German invasion, the Nazis ordered Dutch students and professors to sign the “loyalty declaration.” Prins refused, joined the resistance and became a regional chief of intelligence. Following the 1944 Battle of Arnhem, he was incorporated as an officer into the British army.
After the war, Prins resumed his studies and specialized in ethnology. After his doctoraal (1946), he became a research assistant at Utrecht’s Institute of Ethnology under H Th Fischer. A year later, he received a fellowship at the London School of Economics to study with Raymond Firth, Siegfried Nadel and Audrey Richards. In 1948, trained in Swahili, he ventured to Kenya for fieldwork among the Teita.
In 1951, two years before he earned his PhD from Utrecht, Prins was hired as the first anthropologist at Groningen U, where he became founding director of the Institute of Cultural Anthropology. He remained there until his retirement (1984). His ethnographic journeys took him to Kenya, Tanganyika, Zanzibar, Ethiopia, Zambia, South Arabia, Iraq, Iran, Syria, Turkey and Arctic Scandinavia. Toward the end of his career, he also made many research trips to the island of Malta. Recipient of numerous research grants and fellowships, Prins was also frequently consulted by the Dutch government and royal court.
Although Prins’ research focused initially on social structure, his enduring interest concerned the maritime history and cultural ecology of seafaring peoples. He authored 12 books, including The Coastal Tribes of the Northeastern Bantu: Poko mo, Nyika, Teita (1952), East-African Age-Class Systems: An Inquiry into the Social Order of the Galla, Kipsigis and Kikuyu (1953, reprint 1970), The Swahili-speaking Peoples of Zanzibar and the East Coast of Africa (1961, 2nd ed 1967), Sailing from Lamu: A Study of Maritime Culture in Islamic East Africa (1965), and Handbook of Sewn Boats: The Ethnography and Archaeology of Archaic Plank-Built Craft (1986). He also published scores of articles in such international journals as Anthropos and Man, often on cultural history and maritime anthropology.
Known since his years in the Dutch underground as Peter (his nom de guerre), Prins was a true individualist. Erudite and fluent in many languages, he was an inveterate traveler who loved the sea. A conservative gentleman scholar, he did not welcome the democratization movement transforming the Dutch universities in the late 1960s. About the time of his retirement, the Dutch government restructured higher education and terminated the anthropological institute he had built. Sometimes controversial but always fascinating, Prins is survived by his wife Ita Prins-Poorter, four daughters, five sons and 15 grandchildren. (Harald E L Prins)

ARTHUR TUDEN, 73, passed away, January 19, 2000, at his home in Squirrel Hill, PA, of the complications associated with various debilities. Tuden was a talented teacher, energetic, committed and vital. His booming “OK, charming people!” was a clarion call to all lectures given to students in his introductory anthropology courses and from that call, two generations of undergraduates at the U of Pittsburgh would never again regard the seemingly mundane conditions of life, boredom, embarrassment, daydreams and vague dissatisfactions as too trivial. He had the ability to make these emotions resonate with themes of justice, loyalty, memory and human resilience carried in the rolling oceans that were his lectures which he gave to over 10,000 students.
Tuden was a defining presence in the department he helped to found in 1960. Ever aware of his working class, even lumpen, origins and his ethnic otherness, he strove to make the university and anthropology responsible in their social roles and vision. He carried these concerns into a committed involvement with civil rights, antiwar movement and those intertwined issues of class, gender and race.
Tuden’s own training had been forged by the choices he made for mentors in his chosen vocation. He studied under Murdock at Yale (1947–51), was greatly influenced while at LSE by Gluckman (1952–53) and by Herskovits at North western (PhD, 1963). These mentors with their respective concerns with comparative method, arenas of power, race relations and cultural history were the ballast he carried into the tumultuous 1960s and 1970s and throughout his life.
Tuden’s PhD fieldwork among the Ba-Ila of Zamba (1956–58) provided the experiential basis of his subsequent studies of social stratification, gender hierarchy and comparative slavery mounted within a broadly defined Marxist perspective. The articles which resulted were always provocative and suggestive of the fluxes of social power.
The 1960s were the incubator for his training, disciplinary concerns and aggressively probing questioning of all edifices and artifices of power. Tuden’s contributions to political anthropology are noted in a publication regarded as announcing the theoretical break with the structural functional discourse of political anthropology, Politi cal Anthropology (eds M Swartz, V Turner and A Tuden, 1966). Its introduction is the prolegomena for processual political anthropology. Other publications include: Social Stratification in Africa (with A Plotnicov, 1969); Anthropological Approaches to Political Behavior (with F McGlynn, 1991); and Plantation Slavery in the New World (with V Rubin, reprinted 1993).
Tuden is survived by his wife of 43 years, Agnes, and their three children, Danny, Becky and Lydia. Art Tuden was a signpost in many lives, even a way station when people were in need of modesty or immodesty, courage or prudence, action or deliberation or simply helping keep the faith. Despite his typical riposte when acknowledging the terrible horrors humans commit on each other as “just normal human behavior,” he sincerely wished every mother’s child’s future to be a good one. Underneath the exuberance and bonhomie and good fellowship, there was a hard kernel of fear expressed sometimes as a cynicism, which was in fact the last refuge of his idealism. (Frank McGlynn)

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