JOHN J COLLINS, 60, Professor of Anthropology at Jamestown CC in Jamestown, NY, died on April 17, 1999, after suffering a massive heart attack.
A native of Niagara Falls, NY, Collins came to Jamestown CC in 1967 after receiving his PhD from the State U of New York at Buffalo. During his tenure at JCC, Collins received many state and local awards and commendations including the National Institute for Staff and Organizational Development (1993), and the JCC Faculty Award for Excellence (1985). He was also a recipient of the New York State Chancellors Award.
Although he maintained a full teaching load at JCC, Collins found time to research and publish several items including Anthropology, Culture, Society and Evolution (1975); Primitive Religion (1978); and Native American Religion (1990).
Collins managed a great variety of courses in anthropology including courses on religion; myths and rituals; South Asian society; Native North Americans (he conducted fieldwork among the Taos Pueblo in New Mexico); as well as survey courses in the four fields of anthropology. He was an inspirational teacher who always managed to keep the students’ attention and make even the most tedious details come alive. His classes were always full of eager students. While infusing his classroom lectures with wit and humor, he inspired students to learn about the world around them, and taught, by example, the budding anthropologist the best way to teach non-anthropology students the important concepts of culture and human society.
Collins will be sadly missed, but fondly remembered, by all his students (former and current), teaching colleagues and many others in the local community. (Buffi LaDue)

PATRICK EDWARD DE JOSSELIN DE JONG, 76, Professor Emeritus of Cultural Anthropology, Leiden U, The Netherlands. The Netherlands lost a luminary figure in anthropology on January 1, 1999, when de Jong succumed to Alzheimer’s disease in Oegstgeest, a Leiden suburb. Born in 1922, in Peking, where his father, a Sinologist, held the post of Chinese Secretary at the Dutch Lega tion, de completed enrolled at Leiden U (1940) to pursue studies in Malayan languages and literature, Arabic, Islam and ethnology. Despite Nazi closure of the university, he continued his studies clandestinely at various professors’ homes. Soon after taking his exams at Amsterdam U (1943), the Nazis demanded that university students sign a loyalty oath if they did not want to be sent to Germany as forced labor. De Jong refused to sign, went underground, joined the resistance movement and worked on an underground newspaper in Leiden and also helped forge German documents.
In 1948, De Jong received the Doctoraal (M Phil) degree from Leiden U, and was Assistant Curator of Islamic Collections, National Museum of Ethnology, Leiden (1949-53). He defended his PhD dissertation, Minangkabau and Negri Sembilan: Socio-Political Structure in Indonesia (cum laude, 1951). Fred Eggan’s review of this publication noted that, “Without benefit of field research, but utilizing an admirable combination of historical and comparative methodology and the concepts developed by modern students of social structure, the author has reduced the large body of available materials on Minangkabau and Negri Sembilan to the ‘underlying system’ and then subjected it to theoretical analysis and interpretation” (AA 1952, 54, p 540).
De Jong carried out research first in Negri Sembilan while a Lecturer in Malay Studies at the U of Malaya (1953-6), and then in Sumatra and the Malay peninsula while Professor of Cultural Anthropology at Leiden U (1956-87). His major theoretical interest was structuralism in social organization and myths and in linguistics, and he was strongly influenced by Lévi-Strauss and F De Saussure. Always the mild-mannered gentleman and diplomat who eschewed academic politics, De Jong fought hard for the survival of the anthropology program at Leiden when it was threatened to be relegated to a secondary position by forces unfriendly to anthropology.
A prolific scholar with nearly 200 publications, De Jong also attracted many doctoral students, including not a few from abroad; a total of 27 PhD dissertations were completed under his supervision. Through his writings and teaching, he helped maintain what has been identified as the Leiden tradition in anthropology: theory-building in comparative structuralism. Honors bestowed on him include: Honorary Member of the Board of the Royal Asiatic Society, Malayan Branch; Honorary Fellow of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland; and the Royal Resistance Cross (for work during the Nazi occupation). This thoughtful, kind and generous anthropologist is survived by his wife, Eteke Olivier-de Josselin de Jong and three sons. (Peter Suzuki; Photo H F Vermeulen)

I M DIAKONOFF, 84, Senior Research Associate, Institute of Oriental Studies, St Petersburg, Russia, died May 2, 1999. Diakonoff was one of the greatest scholars of the ancient Orient and influenced archaeologists and anthropologists interested in the evolution of urban society and early history of the ancient Near East. He was an Honorary Member of the American Oriental Society, Member of the British Academy and held an Honorary Doctorate from U of Chicago. His interests and publications were broad, ranging from specialized linguistic studies of Afro-Asiatic languages to analyses of Scandinavian epics and the works of A S Pushkin.
Diakonoff published 28 books and approximately 500 articles (see bibliography in Petersburg Oriental Studies, vol 10, 1999). His English publications include: Ancient Mesopotamia: Socio-Economic History (1969); The Prehistory of the Armenian People (1984); Early Antiquity (1991); and Archaic Myths of the Orient and the Occident (1995). A Festschrift—Societies and Languages of the Ancient Near East: Studies in Honour of I M Diakonoff—appeared in 1982 (ed J N Postgate, vols VIII-IX), and his book of reminiscences (Kniga vospominanii) was published in 1995. His last book, Paths of History (Puti istorii, in press), summarizes his reflections on historical writings and theory from ancient times to the present, including thoughts on the strengths and limitations of Marxian theory of historical process and the sequence of distinct socioeconomic formations. Diakonoff became interested in the motivation behind productive acts and the need to integrate study of the creation of new social values into study of technological changes and socioeconomic developments.
Born in Petrograd January 12, 1915, Diakonoff lived in Oslo, Norway, during the 1920s, where his father worked as a trade representative for the USSR. In 1944 he returned to Norway as a Captain in the Red Army, fighting for liberation from German occupation. He completed study at Leningrad State U (1938), where he studied with Assyriologist A P Riftin. He taught at the University (1940-41; 1945-50), and until 1959 worked in the Department of Ancient Near Eastern Studies at the Hermitage Museum. From 1953 until his death, Diakonoff was a Research Associate (Sotrudnik) of the Institute of Oriental Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences. He established a school of Assyriologists in Leningrad.
Diakonoff could read cuneiform texts in all periods and different genres. Besides Sumerian and Akkadian texts, he published the then unknown letters and economic accounts of the Iron Age Urartian kingdom, as well as Parthian inscriptions. He was equally versed in philology, history and linguistics and was a masterful translator of literary works. He also published his own poems.
Throughout his life, Diakonoff combined his scientific historical studies with a humanitarian tradition centered on humans and their spiritual world. He established international contacts and actively organized important international projects. During Soviet times, Diakonoff frequently found himself in unpleasant situations with state authorities who tried to control contacts between Soviet and foreign scholars. A stern disciplinarian with rigorous scholarly standards, Diakonoff believed that science and scholarship should have no national boundaries or be dependent on political circumstances. (Muhammad Dandamayev, Philip L Kohl)

JAMES F DOWNS, 72, died of heart failure at his home in Tokyo on June 11, 1999. The US Navy, horses and anthropology were the three dominant interests in Downs’ life . He joined the Navy at age 17 before the end of WW II and re-enlisted during the Korean War. He then worked for several newspapers until he entered UC Berkeley, where he moved from freshman to PhD (1962) in seven years. He taught anthropology at the U of Rochester, California State U at Los Angeles, U of Arizona, U of Hawaii at Hilo and several colleges in Japan. Downs was never fully at home in the academy and twice resigned tenured positions. He was interested in teaching anthropology, however; many of his publications were designed for instructional purposes. He was tireless in his efforts to bring anthropological insights into government and business institutions. He consulted with police forces in Arizona and Hawaii on ethnic diversity, and developed training programs for the Peace Corps and the US Navy. In the 1970s, Downs was recalled to active duty in the Navy and operated the intercultural relations program for units going to the Far East. In 1982, he developed course materials at the Naval Academy. He consulted with corporations on how to do business in Japan and at the end of his life he was president of International Bridge, a consulting and importing company .
Downs was the author or co-author of eight books and monographs and some 60 articles on a remarkably wide variety of subjects: intercultural relations, military affairs, travel, history, international business, equestrian sports, agriculture, Tibetans, Navajo, Washo. He wrote two case studies in the Holt, Rinehart and Winston series: The Two Worlds of the Washo (1966) and The Navajo (1972). With H K Bleibtrau he wrote Human Variation: An Introduction to Physical Anthropology (1969). With R B Ekvall he wrote Tibetan Pilgrimage (1987), based on research with Tibetan refugees in Seattle and Northern India. His Cultures in Crisis appeared in 1970. In 1973 he published Human Nature: Introduction to Cultural Anthropology . He served as president of NAPA in 1984 and was on the Exec Bd of the AAA (1980-84).
In the early 1950s Downs was master of the hounds at the Los Angeles Hunt Club and from that time on he was involved with the history of horses and their role in human culture. He wrote “The Origin and Spread of Riding in the Near East and Central Asia,” American Anthropologist (1961). He was at work on a book about the place of the horse in Japanese culture at the time of his death.
Friends will remember Jim Downs as a colorful and polymathic raconteur and advocate for anthropology’s message of intercultural understanding. He is survived by his wife Shizuko, sons Chris and Mark and daughter Martha Woodworth, two grandchildren and two stepdaughters, Ai and Maki Watabe. (Richard Randolph)

LOUIS DUMONT, 87, French anthropologist and expert on caste societies in India, died November 19, 1998 in Paris. Born in Greece in 1911, Dumont studied at the Collège de Sociologie under Roger Caillois and George Ba taille, then under Professor Rivet at the Musée de L’homme. He learned Sanskrit in Germany while a prisoner of war for six years, and taught at the Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes in Paris. In his monumental work, Homo hierarchicus: le système des castes et ses implications (1967), he sought to understand the value system and type of mental organization underlying the caste system. Accord ing to Dumont, such an organization which may seem to us intolerably inegalitarian and contrary to human dignity, actually rests on a holistic conception of society where individuals exist according to the place they occupy in the totality of the group and the relations which define it. In his two part work, Homo Aequalis (1977, 1991), Dumont wrote that instead of viewing the opposition between Indian and European cultures as simply that of holism versus individualism, we should consider how these two poles coexist in variable proportions in every civilization. Using these conceptual tools, he gave special attention to the intra-European opposition between France and Germany. Other seminal publications include La Tarasque (1951) on a popular French religious cult, and Hierarchy and Marriage Alliance (Royal Anthropo logical Institute Occasional Paper #12, 1957). During his career Dumont reached a wider audience in Anglo-Saxon countries than in France. He was awarded an honorary doctorate by the U of Chicago and was a foreign member of British and American academies. RAIN published an interview with Louis Dumont in its April 1981edition. (Excerpted from obituaries published in Le Monde, November 26, 1998 and Anthropology Today, February 1999)

STEPHEN P DUNN, 71, died June 4, 1999 at home in Kensington, CA. Born March 24, 1928, Dunn struggled throughout his life with cerebral palsy. He was educated at Lincoln School of Columbia U, Columbia C and Columbia U, where he received his PhD in anthropology (1959). His devoted parents provided him with the opportunity to travel in Norway, Sweden, France, England, Ireland and Italy as a boy and young man. In 1956, he married Ethel Deikman, who also has cerebral palsy, an event they called the Great October Revolution. (It was very unusual for disabled people to be married, and even more unusual for them to marry each other.) Dunn’s earliest publications were books of poetry, including, as S P Dunn, Some Watercolors from Venice (1956), and ending with The Recluse and Other Poems (1999). Several of his scholarly publications, some of them with his father L C Dunn, were devoted to the Roman Jews. For 25 years he was the editor of Soviet Anthropology and Archeology and Soviet Sociology, translation journals. He translated from Russian, among others, Man and His Work (1970, which he also edited), Soviet Far East in Antiquity (1965), and Yakutia Before its Incorporation into the Russian State (1970) by A P Okladnikov, and three books by Alexander Yanov, The Russian New Right (1978), The Origins of Autocracy (1981), and The Drama of the Soviet 1960s: A Lost Reform (1984). He edited a number of translations, including The Peoples of Siberia (1964), Introduction to Soviet Ethnography (two volumes, with Ethel Dunn, 1974), Ethel Dunn’s translation of A I Klibanov, The History of Religious Sectarianism in Russia (1860s-1917) (1981), and he revised the English translation of Popular Beliefs and Folklore Traditions in Siberia (V Dioszegi, ed, 1968). Dunn wrote four scholarly books: Cultural Processes in the Baltic Area under Soviet Rule (1966), The Peasants of Central Russia (with Ethel Dunn 1967, reissued 1988), Kulturwandel im sowjetischen Dorf, (with Ethel Dunn 1977), and The Fall and Rise of the Asiatic Mode of Production (1982). He also wrote over 100 articles, book reviews and commentaries. In spite of a widely-held opinion that Dunn could not teach, he did teach some courses on the peoples of the USSR at the Monterey Institute of Foreign Studies (1970-74), U of California, Berkeley (1980) and San Francisco State U, as well as courses in comparative religion. The latter course gave him particular satisfaction, since it was his favorite field. Stephen Dunn will be missed by all who value the life of the mind, and by all who loved him. He is survived by his wife, two nieces, a nephew and two great-nieces and a great-nephew. (Ethel Dunn)

HERNÁN HENAO DELGADO, one of Colombia’s most prominent anthropologists, was murdered May 4, 1999, shot in cold blood in his office at the Instituto de Estudios Regionales of the U of Antioquia, Medellín. The authors and causes of his assassination are as yet unknown.
Henao was born in the Colombian city of Manizales and graduated from the Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, in anthropology (1966). In 1976 he earned an MA degree in anthropology at the U of California, Berkeley. From the beginning of his career he used his knowledge and experience as an anthropologist to develop social and cultural analyses of his country, with the aim of better informing policy and decision makers.
Henao’s academic life was dedicated to both research and teaching. A generation of anthropologists of the U of Antioquia developed through his guidance. In addition to being a professor since the early 1970s, Henao also served in diverse administrative roles, such as Dean of the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Chair of the Department of Anthropology and coordinator of several research and discussion groups centered on issues such as violence, health and quality of life, urban problems and cultural identity. He was cofounder of the Instituto de Estudios Regionales, (INER) and was its director from 1993 until his untimely death.
Henao’s main interests were interethnic relations and communication; the role of the family in Colom bian society—with special emphasis on the paternal figure—and on the effect of territorial displacement (due to violence) on the family as a basic social unit. He researched extensively on the concepts of region, locality and territory from the perspective of regional planning and territorial organization processes. Other interests included symbolic and political anthropology, and history of anthropology.
At different times in Henao’s prolific academic life, he studied diverse social and cultural groups in Colombia. Initially, he worked with the indigenous peoples of the Amazon and Urabá regions. Later, he developed local studies in peasant villages in the eastern part of Antioquia. More recently, the problems of urban youths—particularly those of the city of Medellín—captured his interest and academic efforts.
Henao’s anthropological knowledge was applied both to the region of Antioquia, and the social sciences in Colombia in general. He was a member of the Regional Mission for Science and Technology as well as advisor to the National Program of Social Sciences and Humanities, both under the auspices of Colciencias, the official Colombian institute for development of science and technology. Henao left an important legacy in the numerous undergraduate and graduate students that were his pupils; in the consolidation of an important group of researchers who worked with him at the Institute of Regional Studies; and in the content and quality of his reflections and analyses on social issues in Colombia, all of which contribute to our understanding of this complex reality and to the identification of possible solutions. (Diego Herrera)

ANDREW GRAY, British anthropologist and Indigenous Rights activist, was lost in an air accident in the sea off Vanuatu on May 8, 1999. The airplane, a Twin Otter, crashed into the sea in the dark during a tropical storm. Although injured by the impact, Gray, along with a number of others managed to escape the fast-sinking plane and began the long ordeal of trying to swim to shore, which was approximately 7km distant. The group had only one life-jacket between them and they became separated in the dark by the rain and waves. After losing sight of Gray, the other survivors made unsuccessful efforts to relocate him and then resumed their swim towards lights on the shore.
Eventually, five survivors managed to reach shore after six hours, including Gray’s close friend, Danish anthropologist Jens Dahl, Director of the Copen hagen-based International Work Group for Indige nous Affairs (IWGIA). Subsequent air and sea rescue attempts failed to locate any further survivors or bodies and Gray is presumed to have drowned during the night of May 8. His wife, Sheila Aikman, and their son, Robbie, no longer believe that he may be recovered alive.
Gray and Dahl were in the middle of a networking trip in the South Pacific linking up with Indigenous Peoples and their organizations in the region as part of IWGIA’s expanding program in support of the rights of Indigenous Peoples. Gray, who had trained as an anthropologist at the Institute of Social Anthropology in Oxford, and had spent years living with the Harakmbut people of the Madre de Dios region in the Peruvian Amazon, was also Policy Adviser to the UK-based Forest Peoples Programme and member of the board of Anti-Slavery Inter national. He was also vice-Chairman of the IWGIA. His enormous contribution to the cause of Indige nous Rights and to promoting a morally engaged form of anthropology was internationally recognized and his loss leaves a huge gap in the lives of his family, friends and professional colleagues. Gray was a close and trusted friend of Indigenous Peoples all around the world, and his balanced and insightful mastery of fact and analysis were hugely valued. (Louise Henson)

BEATRICE NIED HACKETT, 66, died of breast cancer on June 11, 1999, at her country home in Berkeley Springs, WV, surrounded by her husband, eight children and 11 grandchildren.
Although she did not be come a professional anthropologist until she was in her forties, Hackett had long practiced the good listening of the ethnographer during her years of living in post-war Germany, Switzerland and the Congo, where her husband was serving with the US Army and as a Foreign Service officer.
It was during these years abroad that Hackett developed her deep concern for refugees reflected in much of her later research work. After returning to the US and settling in Washington, DC, in the mid-1960s, Hackett enrolled first in the MA and then PhD program in anthropology at American U. In her MA thesis, she used her fluency in German and knowledge of Germany to analyze a large collection of Third Reich propaganda posters that portray women. She named it, “Communication with an Ideology.” The faculty encouraged her to carry on to the PhD, and she was awarded American U and other grants to enable her to continue her studies. During these student years she also served as Treasurer or the Anthropological Society of Washington, and as President of the Washington Association of Professional Anthropologists.
Hackett’s dissertation research reflected concerns for refugees who had come in ever larger numbers from Southeast Asia during and after the Vietnam war. Hackett focussed on Chinese Cambodian refugees, specifically looking at questions of family, ethnicity and power. Her dissertation was published under the title, Pray God and Keep Walking: Stories of Refugee Woman (1995). This in turn led her to reopen research on Germany, but now with a focus on refugees in the post-war years. She presented a number of papers at anthropology conferences and published others in Selected Papers on Refugee Issues 1992 and in Urban Odyssey.
One of the very last things Hackett undertook was to manage to bring a Croatian refugee family to the US and to Berkeley Springs. One of her neighbors wrote an appreciation for the local newspaper. It vividly records many of the ways that she lived her life to the fullest: “This lover of life—mother of eight including an adopted son, humanitarian, lover of animals, flowers, crabapple jelly, Camembert, travel, rocks and the outdoors.” Bea Hackett was a very special person, as was very apparent when hundreds of people filled the large St Patrick’s Church at the memorial service. (Ruth H Landman)

SHELDON JUDSON, 80, died May 19, 1999, in Princeton, NJ, of pancreatic cancer. He was an advocate of the application of geologic principles to the study of archaeological sites, which he developed during undergraduate field studies in the Chaco Canyon area of New Mexico. He wrote numerous geo-archaeological reports, in-cluding several of paleoindian sites in North America and late Paleolithic rock shelters in France, and he worked extensively in Etruscan, Roman and Greek sites in Italy. In his investigations he sought to understand the constantly changing interrelation between human occupation and the physical environment and the ways in which each was affected by the other.
Born in Utica, NY, October 18, 1918, Judson graduated from Princeton U (1940). He began graduate studies in geology at Harvard U, which were interrupted by World War II. Discharged in 1945 from the Naval Reserve, he received the PhD (1948) and began teaching at the U of Wisconsin-Madison. There he gave a series of lectures on the University’s radio station. This popular series, The Geology of Wisconsin, was designed for non-geologists and integrated into the University’s Extension Division.
Judson joined the faculty at Princeton in 1955, developing courses focused on the last few tens of thousands of years. As a result, his courses were among the first to be offered there in the growing field of the earth’s environment.
Over the years he developed courses integrating geology, physics and mathematics for high-school science teachers, for workshops for disadvantaged students applying for post-high-school education, and for summer programs for primary school teachers.
Judson co-authored several widely-used and influential textbooks. Physical Geology with L Don Leet (1954) and later with Marvin Kauffman (1978), went through eight editions. The most recently published is Earth: An Introduction to Geologic Change with S M Richardson (1995).
Judson was chair of the Department of Geo sciences at Princeton (1970-82) and served as Chair of the University Research Board, with rank of Dean (1972-77). He was appointed the second holder of the Knox Taylor Professorship of Geography (1964) and retired from active teaching in 1987. He held faculty fellowships from the Ford, Guggenheim and Fulbright foundations.
Several months before his death Judson was still active, spending six weeks in Italy on an archeological project of his wife, Pamela Judson-Rhodes (Hemphill), and completing his final manuscript on the site geology of Morgantina, an ancient Greek provincial city in Sicily. Judson is survived by his wife and three daughters from his first marriage to Anne Perrin “Penny” Judson (who died in 1990), six grand children, four step children and six step-grandchildren. Contributions may be made in his memory to Tug Hill Tomorrow Land Trust, PO 6063 Watertown, NY 13601. (William E Bonini, Lincoln S Hollister)

ANTHONY THOMAS KIRSCH, Professor of Anthropology and Asian Studies at Cornell U died in Ithaca on May 17, 1999. Born on May 29, 1930, in Syracuse, NY, Kirsch took a bachelors in 1952 and a masters degree in 1959 from the U of Syracuse. He was in the US Army (1953-55). In 1959, he en tered the doctoral program in Social Anthropol ogy, in the Social Relations Department at Harvard U, completing his doctorate in 1967 following fieldwork in Thailand (1962-64). Kirsch was Asst Prof at Princeton U (1966-70), then moved to Cornell as Assoc Prof (1970). He became Professor in 1978 and chaired the Anthropology Department three times, for a total of 9½ years, beginning in 1971 and concluding his last term in 1990. He was also Acting Chair of the Department of Asian Studies and Associate Director of the Cornell Thailand Project.
Kirsch is revered by colleagues as a wise administrator, by students as a compassionate and perceptive teacher and advisor, and by scholars as deeply knowledgeable with profound vision and synthetic ability. In a conference held at Cornell February 26-27, 1999, individuals from many places and disciplines expressed appreciation for his scholarly work, his teaching and his citizenship.
Kirsch’s scholarly contributions included theory, especially concerning the study of religion, culture and history; Southeast Asia, especially concerning the study of Theravada Buddhism in relation to other streams, notably in Thailand; and the history of anthropology. He brilliantly adapted Parsonsian and Weberian thinking to demonstrate how Theravada Buddhism structured gender and economics. He did seminal analysis of Thai Buddhist syncretism; and his analysis of Southeast Asian hilltribes remains a classic. He also coauthored a textbook, The Human Direction.
As a representative of a premier program in Southeast Asian Studies, Kirsch served as a commentator and synthesizer of many generations of researchers in that region. He was gifted at making sense and significance of their work by framing it within broader historical and comparative contexts. His kindly wisdom has led some to identify him as a sort of contemporary Boddhisatva, a vehicle for the understanding given by the Buddhism that was his field of study.
Kirsch is survived by his wife, Yohko Tsuji. For those who wish to remember Tom Kirsch, donations may be sent to the Anthropology Endowment Fund, Department of Anthropology, Cornell U, Ithaca, NY 14853. (James Peacock)

YURI VALENTINOVICH KNOROZOV, 76, died in St Petersburg, Russia, on March 31, 1999. Knorozov was the first scholar to prove the logosyllabic character of Maya hieroglyphic writing. His research, although ignored for a long time, provided the basis for the linguistic decipherment of Maya hieroglyphs.
Knorozov was born on November 19, 1922 in Kharkov, Ukrania, as the son of Russian parents. His scientific career began in Moscow U, where he embarked on studies of ancient civilizations, focusing on Ancient Egypt, China and India. His studies were interrupted in World War II, when he joined the soviet forces as an artillery spotter. He was among the first allied soldiers to enter Berlin in May, 1945. At the National Library the young soldier and his comrades came upon boxes full of books to be sent somewhere else in Germany. These boxes were eventually transported to Moscow, where Knoro zov, once back in the Soviet Union discovered among them a few books of particular interest to him, such as a one-volume edition of the three Maya codices and Diego de Landa’s Relación de las cosas de Yucatan. His professor, Sergei Aleksandrovich Tokarev proposed that the young Knorozov, trained already in the study of other ancient writing systems, attempt to decipher the Maya script. He wrote his PhD dissertation on Landa’s Relación, which became the backbone of his future approach to decipherment.
Applying systematic structural analysis of scenes in the Dresden Codex, Knorozov established that the “hieroglyphic alphabet” contained in Landa’s work was in fact a misunderstood syllabary. In 1952, he published his first decipherments of hieroglyphs in the Dresden Codex, such as tzul for dog, kutz for wild turkey, and buluk for the number eleven. He showed that Maya words were usually spelled with the combination of two consonant-vowel syllables, and that the vowel of the last syllable was dropped. Thus, the word tzul for dog was written “tzu-lu.” Although his publications were soon published in Spanish and English, they did not receive proper attention by his colleagues on the other side of the Iron Curtain. Only after a few scholars such as Michael Coe, David Kelley and Floyd Lounsbury defended the value of Knorozov’s approach and demonstrated its effectiveness in other contexts was Knorozov’s scholarship fully accepted.
Amongst Mesoamericanists it is not widely known that Knorozov published numerous works on the writing systems of Harappan civilization and on the Rongo Rongo tablets of Easter Island. He also directed excavations in Middle Asia and the Kurile Islands.
Knorozov finally visited the countries which are home of Maya writing in 1990, exploring Tikal and Uaxactun together with his assistant Galina Yershova. Knorozov never held a teaching position, but he planted the seed of interest in Maya writing in many young Russian students. Knorozov’s belief that Maya hieroglyphic writing is a decipherable system based on a language provided the key to his and all other subsequent decipherments. If there is one person who “broke the Maya code,” it was Yuri Knorozov. (Nikolai Grube, Matthew Robb)

JOSEPH BUIST LOUDON, 77, doctor and social anthropologist, died in Llantrithyd, Wales, on February 5, 1999. Born in Cardiff, on November 10, 1921, Loudon achieved distinction in two fields: medicine and social anthropology. He studied at Oxford U, and after military service in the RAF Medical Corps (1947-49) worked as a medical practitioner among white farmers and their Zulu laborers in Natal, South Africa. His interest in the field of race relations, together with the belief that he could not fully comprehend both European and Zulu illnesses without an understanding of culture and social organization turned him to social science. Consequently he returned to Britain and enrolled as a postgraduate student in the department of Social Anthropology at the London School of Economics. After graduating with distinction Loudon was appointed assistant lecturer in that department (1956-57). LSE was anxious to retain him but Loudon returned to South Wales where he accepted a post as a social anthropologist with the Social Psychiatry Research Unit of the Medical Research Council in Penarth and where he conducted pioneer work on the epidemiology of mental illness in the vale of Glamorgan. He left this position in 1964 when he was appointed to the first lectureship in Social Anthropology in the new department of Sociology and Social Anthropology at the University College of Swansea.
In 1966 Loudon was promoted to senior lecturer and was instrumental in putting the new department on the anthropological map. A versatile anthropologist who balked at specialized subdisciplines, he taught a variety of courses and published in diverse areas of the discipline. Ironically he was regarded in the US as a medical anthropologist, a field yet to take off in Britain but which was emerging in America. In 1980 he was a visiting professor at the U of California, Berkeley, where he suffered two severe heart attacks. Courageously he resumed his teaching duties in Swansea but a third coronary compelled his early retirement in 1981 at the height of his intellectual powers.
Like many prophets Loudon was honored more abroad than at home. In 1956 he acted as consultant anthropologist to the World Health Organi zation; in 1976 he was invited to chair a session at the AAA; in 1980 he gave the prestigious Munro lectures at the U of Edinburgh. He served on the national executive of the Association of Social Anthropologists of the Commonwealth and compiled its first register of members.
Loudon’s major publications were White Farmers and Black Labour-Tenants (1970) and Social Anthropology and Medicine (1976). He also published numerous papers in both medicine and in social anthropology, on areas of fieldwork that ranged from South Africa, South Wales, Malaysia and Tristan da Cunha.
Joseph Loudon is survived by his wife Joan, son Alasdair, daughters Deborah and Frances, and 9 grandchildren. (Adapted from an obituary by Leonard Mars, published in Anthropology Today, April 1999)

BEATRICE DIAMOND MILLER, 79, retired Professor of Anthropology at the U of Wisconsin, Madison, died of chronic pulmonary disease and arteriolosclerosis on May 15, 1999 in Camano Island, WA. Miller was a renowned anthropologist, a specialist in Tibetan and Buddhist studies as well as northwest coast Indian tribes such as the Makah. Born May 29, 1919, in New York City, she received an AB with distinction in Oriental Civilizations from the U of Michigan, Ann Arbor (1948) and PhD in Anthropology from the U of Washington at Seattle (1958). “Lama and Laymen: An historicofunctional study of the secular integration of Monastery and Community,” was the title of her dissertation. Miller taught at Beloit College and at the U of Wisconsin, Madison. She published numerous articles in professional journals in the US, Europe and India. From 1978 until 1985, she served as Secretary of the International Association of Buddhist Studies.
As a youth, Miller worked in a zipper factory in New Jersey as well as a lab researching tropical and infectious diseases. She joined the Young People’s Socialist League in the 1930s and participated in the Kefauver investigation of organized criminal infiltration of the Labor movement. Throughout her life she was a supporter of the underprivileged and oppressed, and was a defender of animal rights as well as human rights. Having grown up in the Great Depression, she was an advocate of socially responsible investing, often stating she did not believe in money making money, only in people earning it through work and responsibility.
Miller and her late husband, anthropologist Robert James Miller—who died in 1994—traveled the world researching the society, culture, religion and plight of Tibetan refugees. Their work concentrated on northern India, including Darjeeling, SakyongPedong, and Kalimpong; in western Ben gal, and Dalhousi, Mussoorie and Dharamsala as well as in the former kingdom of Sikkim, and in the states of Karnataka, Maharastra and the city of New Delhi. She and her husband were supporters of the Indian independence movement and frequent visitors to India following that country’s independence from the UK. Every March 10, in commemoration of the Tibetan uprising against the Chinese invaders in 1959 that resulted in the successful escape of the Tibetan spiritual and government leader His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama, Miller threw a party involving Tibetan food.
Most recently, Miller was involved in research to back the Makah claim to hunt gray whales as part of their assigned treaty rights, as well as continuing her support of the cause of Tibetan rights.
Miller is survived by daughter, Karla MuLan Miller, and sons, Erik Topgye Miller and Terin Tashi Miller, as well as by numerous friends who became part of her widely extended family. Plans are being made for a memorial ceremony to be held during the October 1999 South Asian Studies Conference at Madison, WI. Donations may be made on her behalf to: Oglala Lakota College, 537 Piya Wiconi Rd, Kyle, SD 57752. (Leighann Narum Miller)

ROBERT JAMES MILLER, 70, Professor Emeritus in the Departments of Anthropology and South Asian Studies at the U of Wisconsin, Madison, died April 13, 1994 at home in Camano Island, WA. Born September 18, 1923 in Detroit, MI, Miller received his PhD in anthropology from the U of Washington, Seattle (1955), having received his BA from the U of Michigan, Ann Arbor. He was a AAA member of the honorary scientific society, Sigma XI.
Miller and his wife, Beatrice Diamond Miller, met while arguing Chinese politics over a mutual friend’s sick bed shortly before he was assigned to the USS Lowe, a Destroyer Escort on convoy duty, as a radio operator during World War II. They celebrated their 50th wedding anniversary in 1993.
Miller was the resident director of the American Institute of Indian Studies in New Delhi (1970-72) and General Secretary of the International Association of Buddhist Studies.
At the U of Wisconsin, where he taught from 1959 until his retirement in 1988, Miller chaired the Department of Anthropology on several occasions; as well as the Department of Indian—later South Asian—Studies, and directed Wisconsin’s federally-funded Indian—later South Asian—Language and Area Center.
After his initial fieldwork on the Inner Mongolia project, Miller had many books and monographs published, including three chapters of his own and co-authoring four others for A Regional Handbook on the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, edited by Helmut Wilhelm (1956).
In the 1970s, Miller’s interests began to return to his technical roots. He developed his lifelong love for technology, radio and electronics while attending Cass Technical High School in Detroit. His articles in the 1970s appeared in new journals such as Futurics and Anthro-Tech, and in 1983 he edited and contributed to Robotics: Future Factories, Future Workers (Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences, Vol 470). (Leighann Narum Miller)

JACQUELINE MITCHELL, 59, Dean of the Graduate School of Education at the U of Buffalo, died at her home on April 30, 1999 after a short illness due to terminal cancer.
Born in Buena Vista, GA, Mitchell earned a doctoral degree in education, cultural anthropology and sociolinguistics from the Harvard U Grad uate School of Education (1979). An undergraduate of Trenton State C in New Jersey (BA, 1961), she earned a masters degree from Smith C (1976).
Widely published, Mitchell also received many national and regional honors and awards. In 1989, she was named an American Council in Education fellow at the Center for Leadership Development, and received the distinguished scholar and research award from the American Educational Research Association.
Mitchell came to the U of Buffalo in 1997 as the first African American dean in the University’s history. At the U of Buffalo, she quickly established a reputation as an innovative administrator and educator with a commitment to urban schools. She established research teaching and cooperative programs in partnership with the Buffalo public schools.
Former Provost Thomas E Headrick noted that Mitchell came to Buffalo with “a quiet determination to move the Graduate School of Education in a direction that would respond to the demands of 21st century education and would focus on urban centers and on the changes being wrought by technology on the methods, content, and structure of education. Her union and her belief that the school could make a difference in the real world of classrooms, children and community is her legacy to the U of Buffalo” (The Reporter, May 6, 1999,p 3).
Throughout her career, Mitchell conducted research in ethnographic and sociolinguistic studies, cognitive development and community intervention, particularly in low income children. She was also interested in the interface of learning with race, ethnicity and gender. This led her to studies of educational decision-making in student careers, literacy resources in a pre-school context, family stress and coping strategies, and neighborhood social organization.
Mitchell is survived by her mother, Ethel Mitchell, sons Michael and David Gibson, and daughter Jill Gibson. Memorial donations may be made in her honor to the UB Foundation, Box 900, Buffalo, NY 14226. These funds will be used to benefit the Jacqueline Mitchell Memorial Fund. (Yolanda Moses)

AMÉRICO PAREDES, 83, anthropology and English professor at the U of Texas, Austin, and pioneer in the field of Mexican American studies, died in Austin, TX , on May 5, 1999, the day called El Cinco de Mayo, the anniversary of the Battle of Puebla in which the people of Mexico defeated the French forces of occupation and began their expulsion from Mexico. It is surely without doubt that Paredes became the foremost anthropological, folkloristic and literary scholar of the community that he first called “Greater Mexico,” a marvelous term for capturing the present and historical movement of Mexicans across the border with the US. For like his people, Paredes was dedicated to the proposition that cultures are not contained within historically contingent things that we call nation-states. And, expanding this idea of border-crossings, as early as the mid-1950s, he was also of the anticipatory mind that scholarly disciplinary activity in the realm of culture should not be contained within strict boundaries, but must continually be integrative to produce one encompassing and fluid portrait in which history, anthropology, folklore, literature and cultural geography become as one, at least in the hands of an Américo Paredes. Further, like his people, Paredes and his scholarship were products of social conflict which brought under question the reigning functionalist paradigm of that moment. Paredes took his PhD in English and Spanish from the U of Texas, Austin (1956). In 1957 he was appointed Asst Prof of English at the Austin campus. He transformed his doctoral dissertation into the now classic book, With His Pistol in His Hand: A Border Ballad and its Hero (1958) which, along with several articles, earned him tenure and the rank of Assoc Prof (1961). Other significant publications produced the full professorship (1965). But, the culturally-imbedded, fieldwork based, interdisciplinary character of his scholarship soon led to an invitation in 1966 to accept a joint appointment with the Texas department of anthropology, an invitation organized by no less a social anthropologist than Richard Newbold Adams, former President of AAA. Paredes also founded the highly-regarded Center for Folklore and Ethnomusicology in the 1960s where several younger anthropologist/folklorists such as Roger D Abrahams, Richard Bauman and Joel Sherzer came under his influence throughout their own distinguished careers. In the next two decades at Texas he was also centrally instrumental in producing a new generation of anthropologists such as Richard Flores, Joe Graham, John McDowell, Olga Najera-Ramirez, Manuel Peña, Suzanne Seriff, Beverly Stoeltje and myself, who have gone on to expand upon his work even as he deeply influenced the formation of other anthropologists elsewhere such as Renato Rosaldo and Carlos Vélez-Ibañez. Through the remainder of his life, however, Paredes’ own scholarly production continued in a series of articles and three more books such The Folktales of Mexico (1970). Anthropological scholarship on Greater Mexico and on cultural theory must now surely say, paso por aquí. Paredes’ widow, Amelia, passed away barely two months after his death. They are survived by a daughter and three sons. (José Limón)

FRANK SPENCER, 57, professor of anthropology at Queens College and the Graduate Center, CUNY died May 30, 1999 from cancer. He was a historian of biological anthropology. His focus was not on the developing internal logic of human paleontological research, but on researchers situated in their historic and social contexts. His approach to the history of the field often revealed how race, class and nationalism color our understanding of human evolution.
Spencer proved that an historical perspective on the development of biological anthropology could be a fertile area for research (ed, History of Physical Anthropology: An Encyclopedia, 1997). His history was not one of bloodless hypotheses clashing on route to truth. His was a history of immigrants and nativists, elites and common people. It looked at kinship, school ties and career ambitions. His research included works on Ales Hrdlíèka, Samuel Morton, W W Howells, Arthur Keith, Charles Dawson, Carlton Coon and Harry Shapiro.
Spencer was best known for his research into the Piltdown fraud, Piltdown: A Scientific Forgery (1991). Dismissed as a prank that got out of hand by some, Spencer saw the case as an intentional distortion for personal advantage that misled research into human origins for 40 years. It was an oddly brusque and cold note responding to Aleq Hrdlí>ka’s questions about Piltdown that first brought Sir Arthur Keith to Spencer’s attention. Detailed research uncovered that Keith and Dawson met before the Piltdown discovery, that they denied this meeting took place and that Keith’s first public statements included information about the discovery that should have been known only to the excavators. Housed at the Hunterian Museum, where Keith was conservator, the Piltdown material briefly made the museum the center of physical anthropology in Britain. While the case built by Spencer remains circumstantial, the facts he uncovered establish inconsistencies in Keith’s statements and behavior.
Born in Chatham, England in May 1942, Spencer’s first career was in medical technology as a clinical microbiologist and clinical parasitologist in Kent. In 1969, he moved to Canada as the Technical Director in the Pathology Department of a Windsor hospital. It was at that time that he began his BA at the U of Windsor, Ontario. Graduating with Honors (1973), he went on to take his graduate work at the U of Michigan in Physical Anthropology. He completed his dissertation on the life and work of Aleš Hrdlíc´ka in 1979, and at the age of 37 took a position at Queens College, CUNY. A skilled teacher and respected administrator, he became an Assoc Prof in 1984, Chair of the Anthropology Department in 1985, and Professor in 1987. He served three terms as Chair providing a sense of balance and a perspective that emphasized consensus building.
Spencer was working on a history of physical anthropology at the time of his death. The Frank Spencer Scholarship Fund is being established at Queens College for outstanding students in biological anthropology. He is survived by his wife, Elena. (James A Moore)

COUNCIL S TAYLOR, 82, anthropologist and scholar, died July 5, 1999 in Van Nuys, CA. He resided in Northridge at the time of his death.
Taylor was born in Brooklyn and graduated from Yale U with degrees in anthropology (BA 1950; PhD 1955). While at Yale, he was president of the Elizabethan Club at the time authors Mary McCarthy, William Penn Warren and W H Auden were members. Taylor also saw combat duty during Wold War II, serving in the US Marine Corps.
Taylor taught at the State U of New York, Old Westbury from 1969 to 1985, during which time he was honored as Distinguished Teaching Professor (1985). In 1985, although offered a position at Princeton, Taylor migrated to California to teach at the U of Southern California. He served as chair of the Department of Anthropology for over five years. He also served as President of the Association of Black Anthropologists, for which he was honored in 1993.
An avid dance enthusiast, Taylor was consulted by Alvin Ailey and Katherine Dunham for his knowledge and expertise in authentic dance movement.
Taylor concluded his teaching at California State U, Northridge. He is survived by nieces Edith and Alison Davis, and two grandnephews. Donations in his memory may be made to the Council S Taylor Scholarship Fund , Anthropology Department, California State U, 18111 Nordhoff St, Northridge, CA 91330-8244. (Alison Davis)

JOHN W M WHITING, 90, died peacefully at home on May 13, 1999, in Chilmark, MA, on Martha’s Vineyard, where he was born. Whiting was a leading psychological anthropologist and the teacher of many anthropologists. His fieldwork on childhood learning in New Guinea during 1938 led to the publication of Becoming a Kwoma (1941). He devoted the rest of his long career to the systematic comparison of child behavior and parental practices in diverse human societies, seeking to find generalizations about human development that would survive the test of cross-cultural investigation. The seminar he conducted at Harvard with Beatrice B Whiting—to whom he was married for 60 years—was the major training base in comparative studies of child rearing and development for three decades,1950-80.
Whiting’s teaching was legendary, not for his performance on the lecture platform, but for treating graduate students as equals in his seminar, challenging them to prove their points and encouraging them to challenge him.
Whiting received his BA (1931) and PhD (1938) at Yale U. He was a research associate at Yale before the war, served in the US Navy, and afterwards taught at the State U of Iowa for two years before moving to Harvard. He was on the teaching faculty at Harvard from 1949 to 1978.
After publication of his landmark volume Child Training and Personality with Irvin L Child (1953), Whiting’s major projects included the Six Cultures Study of Socialization, a comparative field study in Mexico, India, Kenya, Okinawa, the Philippines and US. The Six Cultures Study, initiated in 1954, produced many publications and remains the most intensive investigation of childhood in diverse cultures undertaken so far. Beginning in 1966, the Whitings founded and directed the Child Development Research Unit at the U of Nairobi, involving studies in several parts of Kenya. This Carnegie project also brought Kenyans to Harvard for graduate training, representing Whiting’s goal of making comparative child research a global project in which scientists of all cultures could participate on an equal basis.
After his retirement, Whiting collaborated with Irven DeVore, Beatrice Whiting and a group of postdoctoral fellows in a cross-cultural field study of adolescence (1980-85). His most important research papers were reprinted with new introductions and an autobiographical memoir, Culture and Human Development: The Selected Papers of John Whiting, edited by Eleanor Hollenberg Chasdi (1994).
Whiting delivered the Distinguished Lecture to the AAA in 1973 and (with Beatrice Whiting) received the AAA Distinguished Service Award in 1982. In 1978 he was elected the first President of the Society for Psychological Anthropology and in 1989 received (with Beatrice Whiting) its first Career Contribution Award. The American Psychological Association award ed him the G Stanley Hall Award for Distinguished Contributions to Developmental Psychology in 1973. He was a member of the National Academy of Sciences and a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. (Robert A LeVine)

RAYNARD T DAVIS, 35, Osteo logical Technician on the African Burial Ground Project, was stabbed to death in April 1999 while meeting with prospective buyers of his car in Washington, DC. Born on August 20, 1963 in the District of Columbia, Davis received his BA degree from Oberlin C in anthropology and Black Studies, and did further studies towards an MA in African Studies at Howard U. He was a dedicated member of the Howard U laboratory staff (1993-97). He first worked on the Cobb Collection, and later worked as Osteological Technician Assistant, until he was promoted to Technician on the African Burial Ground Project, where he was responsible for x-ray images of more than 100 remains. Davis traveled extensively in East Africa and Europe, working for a summer with Richard Leakey as part of a Harvard U summer program in Kenya. Raynard Davis served as Executive Director of the Student Coalition Against Apartheid and Racism, and was President of the Davis Contracting Company owned by his family. (Excerpted from an obituary printed in the spring 1999 Update.)

PHILLIP GOODE, 47, Western Apache linguist, translator, interpreter and educator, died in Phoenix, April 27, 1999. He had suffered a stroke at his home in San Carlos, AZ, the previous night. Born on November 8, 1951, in San Carlos, Goode was widely regarded as an authority on Western Apache dialectology, discourse and grammar. Goode worked ex tensively with many Apache communities through out the Southwest including the Yavapai Apache tribe in Camp Verde, White Mountain Apache Tribe, Mescalero Apache tribe and other Atha baskan language programs. He also worked as a language consultant to scholars affiliated with numerous universities, including the U of Arizona, Arizona State U, Navajo CC, Eastern Arizona C, UCLA, U of Texas, U of North Texas, and U of Massachusetts.
Goode (nicknamed “Boy,” he said, after the character in Tarzan movies) learned a good deal about Apache linguistics and literacy from his father, Britton Goode, who had worked closely with Faith Hill and the Summer Institute of Linguistics in the 1950s and 1960s. He also studied independently with Paul Platero. He developed almost all of the pedagogical materials used by bilingual teachers on the San Carlos reservation. Goode was an patient and generous language teacher, who used his prodigious creativity to inspire rather than intimidate his students. As a linguistic consultant, he was always ready with an example of an Apache grammatical quirk that he knew would be or interest to a researcher, but that the researchers would never think to ask on their own. At the time of his death he was teaching Apache at San Carlos High School, and was working on a number of projects in Western Apache language and history. (David Samuels)

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