YEHUDI A COHEN, 70, died peacefully at home in Easton, PA, on December 17, 1998, of complications from diabetes mellitus. Born in New York, Cohen received his BA in psychology and history from Brooklyn College, and was then drawn to anthropology with the intent of combining these dual interests.
He received his PhD in anthropology from Yale U (1952), stimulated there by the productive interdisciplinary climate of the late 1940s and early 1950s. Having done his dissertation fieldwork on socialization in a mountain community in Jamaica, West Indies, he was associated in the first part of his career, and to a certain extent, throughout it, with the culture and personality perspective.
Drafted not long after receiving his doctorate, Cohen spent two years in the armed forces. In the early 1950s he did a short study of commercialized prostitution in Okinawa, Japan, and in 1957 returned to Jamaica to analyze the effects of the bauxite industry within the community in which he had done his graduate fieldwork. He published Social Structure and Personality (1961), and The Transition from Childhood to Adolescence: Cross Cultural Studies of Initiation Ceremonies, Legal Systems and Incest Taboos (1964).
Cohen joined Rutgers U in 1967 from U California, Davis. Following a two year study of education in Israel, his research interests turned to the relationship between educational institutions and political organization. During the Rutgers years he produced the three volume text, Man in Adaptation, popular during the 1970s.
In the latter part of his career, Cohen focused on cultural evolution, especially on what he saw as the critical role of external relations to internal change. At the time of his retirement from Rutgers in 1993, he was in the process of rewriting and revising two unpublished books, From Village to Multinational, and Inside/Outside, a task he was unable to complete due to deteriorating vision.
As a wheelchair user and dialysis patient during the last 5 ½ years of his life, Cohen became acutely aware of the issues and problems of physical limitations in various settings of our culture, coping with grace, patience and an occasional wry comment. He is survived by his daughter, Lisa Peet, and grandson, Gideon. (Barbara LaSota) 

JOHN L COTTER, 87, died in Philadelphia on February 5, 1999. Born December 6, 1911 in Denver, CO, Cotter received his BA and MA in anthropology at the U of Denver (1934, 1935). He was awarded a PhD in anthropology at the U of Pennsylvania (1959). Among his awards were the J Alden Mason Award given in 1974 from the Society for Pennsylvania Archaeology, an Outstanding Service Award from the National Park Service (1977), David E Finley Award from the National Trust for Historic Preservation (1978) and the Jean C Harrington Medal from the Society for Historical Archeology (1984). His major publications include: Archeology of Bynum Mounds (with John Corbett, 1952), Archeological Excavations at Jamestown, Virginia (1958), and The Buried Past, an Archaeological History of Philadelphia (with Daniel Roberts and Michael Parrington, 1992).
Cotter’s career demonstrated research interests ranging from the PaleoIndian to the present. In 1934-35 he was a member of the Denver Museum of Natural History field crew at the Lindenmeier PaleoIndian site in western Colorado and remained for one additional season (1935-6) under direction of the Smithsonian Institution. Cotter then headed a research team that conducted test excavations at the Clovis Type site under the sponsorship of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. The findings and analyses were published in two articles of the Proceedings of the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences (1937, 1938). At the same time Cotter enrolled in the Anthropology Department, U of Pennsylvania and began his lifetime affiliation with the University Museum. From 1938-40 he served as state supervisor of the archaeological survey of Kentucky and from there joined the National Park service (1940) as archaeologist/superintendent of Tuzigoot National Monument, Arizona.
After service in the 357th Infantry regiment in Normandy (where he was wounded and awarded a Purple Heart), Cotter spent the rest of World War II in England assisting various army educational programs. Cotter then was archaeologist in charge of the Natchez Trace Parkway (1947-50), Acting Chief Archaeologist (1950-53) and archaeologist in charge of Jamestown excavations (1953-57). His subsequent career was concentrated on historical archaeology as regional archaeologist for the National Park Service’s Northeast and Mid-Atlantic Region. In 1960 he taught a seminal course in historical archaeology at the U of Pennsylvania. He retired from the NPS in 1977 and from the University Museum in 1980 when he was made Curator Emeritus, a position he vigorously maintained until his death.
Cotter’s contributions to American archaeology were immense. His Clovis work (subject of his last work to be published this year), Jamestown excavations (which greatly assisted in launching the young discipline of historical archaeology) and support for the Society of Historical Archaeology (co-founder) are significant achievements. But it is his teaching legacy which will always resist measurement and accurate evaluation. From his ôAbove Ground Archaeology” to his love for American cultural history, Cotter’s legacy will exist for all to admire, use and cherish. His catholic perspective and all-embracing world view are deeply missed by those who called him mentor, colleague and friend. (David G Orr; Photo courtesy of the U of Pennsylvania Museum) 

GEORGE ERNEST HASEMANN, 54, Head, Archaeology Section of the Instituto Hondureno de Antropologia e Historia, passed away in Tegucigalpa, Honduras, October 8, 1998, after a 5-year struggle with cancer.
Born in New York City, January 16, 1944, Hasemann earned a BA in English literature (Brown U, 1968), and taught English and French literature at Asheville School NC until 1973, when he was offered a scholarship to study anthropology at Florida State U. He attended the archaeological field school at the site of Ulmore Cove in northwest Florida. He was a laboratory assistant for Donald Crusoe, teaching assistant in anthropology and part-time Conservation Assistant at the Southeast Archaeological Center of the National Park Service.
Hasemann’s first exposure to Honduras was in 1974, where he was involved in an archaeological survey of Utila in the Bay Islands.. He returned to Roatan and Utila to conduct further surveys, then participated in Spanish colonial excavations at St Augustine, FL (1976). After receiving his MA (1977), he returned to Honduras to conduct a series of excavations for IHAH at colonial period sites across the country. In 1978, Hasemann began his involvement in the El Cajon archaeological project (The El Cajon Archaeological Investigation and Salvage Project, Vol 1, Prehistoric Cultural Ecology 1989, co-eds K Hirth and G Lara Pinto), supervising the regional survey of this hydroelectric dam and 94²km reservoir (“Late Classic Settlement on the Sulaco River, Central Honduras” 1987, in Chiefdoms in the Americas, eds R Drennan and C Uribe).
In 1982, Hasemann settled in Tegucigalpa to become a permanent staff archaeologist with IHAH. Over the next 16 years, he served indefatigably as interim Head of the Department of Anthropological Investigations, then as Head of the Archaeology Section, personally directing and coordinating numerous multi-disciplinary field projects in the central highlands, jungles of the Mosquita, Caribbean and Pacific coasts, and Bay Islands. With this responsibility came the opportunity to synthesize his observations over the span of his career, bringing his experience with Honduran archaeology into the larger anthropological context (“La Zona Central: Regionalismo e Interaccion”, co-author G Lara Pinto in La Historia General de Centroamerica, Vol I, ed R Carmack, 1993, FLASCO; and “Los Indios de Centroamerica”, co-authors G Lara Pinto and F Cruz, in Coleccion Indios de America, 1996, MAPFRE).
Hasemann traveled abroad extensively as IHAH representative and enthusiastic ambassador of Honduran archaeology and anthropology. He returned to the US to pursue advanced graduate studies with Kenneth Hirth and Thomas Dillehay (U Kentucky, 1988-93). He was an Instructor in archaeology and in physical anthropology, also serving as Assistant State Archaeologist. His dissertation was accepted posthumously (“Regional Settlement History on the Lower Sulaco River, West Central Honduras: Rural Settlement Theory and Ancient Settlement Pattern in Highland Honduras,” PhD 1998). Hasemann’s contributions to Honduran archaeology and anthropology will last far into the future, but, for those who knew and cared about him, George Hasemann long ago entered into our collective folklore forever. He is survived by his wife and colleague Gloria Lara Pinto de Hasemann and children Ana Eugenia, Jose Enrique, Diana and Dawn. (Boyd Dixon) 

DELMOS J JONES, 62, a pioneering African American anthropologist who won the Society for the Anthropology of North America’s 1998 Lifetime Achievement Award, died of cancer on February 3, 1999, at his home in East Durham, NY. He was a much beloved teacher and colleague, whose gentleness, kindness and lifelong commitment to equality and social justice came together in an extraordinary personal dignity.
Raised in impoverished circumstances on the outskirts of Selma, AL, at age 15 Jones traveled by bus to join a sister in Oakland, CA. It was the first bus of his life where he did not have to sit in the back, and it liberated him from childhood agricultural labor. Alone in his family to acquire an education, he worked his way through high school in a bakery, whose owner allowed him to sleep in the back. He earned a BA in anthropology from San Francisco State College (1959), MA from the U of Arizona and PhD from Cornell (1967). He taught at the U of Colorado until 1970, when he joined the doctoral faculty in anthropology at CUNY, becoming Professor Emeritus in 1998.
Jones’s recent research was US based and focused on decentralized Community Planning Boards, Head Start and (for the National Parks Service) community access to recreational space. Before he died, he was heading up a study of the Fighting Back Initiative, a 14-city effort to reduce drug and alcohol abuse, funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. These projects built on a career of engagement with minority peoples the world over. For his Master’s thesis, Jones studied the settlement and migration patterns among Arizona’s Papago Indians; for the PhD he became the first ethnographer to live with the Lahu, a northern Thai hill tribe. When the AAA Ethics Committee raised alarms about possible military uses of ethnographic research in the Indochina War, it cited Jones’s principled departure from the field as an exception to its concerns. In the mid-1970s, Jones studied the ghettoization of Australian aborigines, launching his first project on US ghettos at the same time.
Taken together, these experiences prompted the development of a broad, comparative perspective on oppressed minorities. Jones also made path-breaking contributions to policy debates. Rather than merely criticize the “culture of poverty” discourse, he proposed a “culture of achievement” instead. Documenting the sacrifices poor people make to acquire education, he showed how setbacks of illness or the loss of employment, housing or social benefits undermine their efforts.
As an “insider” anthropologist, Jones wrote with sensitivity about the complexities of representing one’s own group as anthropological subjects. Having begun his career studying variation among 6 villages of a single tribe in Thailand, he believed that the idea of group unity blinds the researcher to meaningful intra-group differences—a message that has inspired many minority students training to be anthropologists. 
Delmos Jones is survived by his wife, Mary Lou, his daughter Adrian, son Valen, and two grandchildren. (Jane Schneider)

HENRY P LUNDSGAARDE, 60, died after a long struggle with cancer on February 8, 1999, in Lawrence, KS. A legal anthropologist whose ethnographic interests were the Pacific Islands and modern America, Lundsgaarde’s work on the Gilbert Islands (now Kiribati) and a cultural analysis of homicide patterns in Houston, TX, are his enduring contributions to scholarship and to the two nations that came to claim his loyalties.
Born in Denmark in 1938, Lundsgaarde emigrated to the US in his late teens. During his last two years of college, he became a professionally-oriented anthropology major at UCSB where, for example, he did a sociological study of the nearby Danish community of Solvang.
As a Woodrow Wilson Fellow, Lundsgaarde did graduate work at Wisconsin (PhD 1966). His doctoral fieldwork in the southern Gilberts was part of a comparative, NSF-supported project on the adaptations of resettled Pacific islander communities directed by Homer Barnett (U Oregon). Lundsgaarde’s role in the project, however, was unique in that he studied resident islanders (Nonouti, Tamana and Tibeteuea). Though he did not publish a major Gilbertese ethnography, he wrote many articles and chapters on principally law-related subjects, and as an active member of the Association of Social Anthropologists of Oceania in its early days, he edited one of ASAO’s first symposium volumes, Land Tenure in Oceania(1974).
In 1965 Lundsgaarde joined UCSB’s faculty. He introduced a course, “Law and Warfare in Non-Western Societies,” which became a staple of the curriculum, having been taught subsequently by Elman Service and Napoleon Chagnon. Following a post-doctoral fellowship at Harvard Law School (1969-70), Lundsgaarde served as chair of the sociology and anthropology department at U Houston (1970-72). Through professional ties with senior police officials, he was enabled to do a ethnographic and archival study of the nearly 300 homicide cases in Houston in 1969 (from the scene of the crime to the judicial disposition of each case). Solidly based on the 200 cases in which killer and victim had a social relationship, he confirmed that the severity of the punishment meted out to killers correlated inversely with the closeness of the relationship between killer and victim (many suffered no punishment at all). His analysis was published as Murder in Space City(1977), which remains a highly respected work.
Most of Lundsgaarde’s career was at U Kansas, where he served as department chair (1972-76) and where he initiated research on medical informatics with a project at the U Vermont Medical Center (1976-78). While he retained his interest in the central Pacific, his applied work—supported mainly by grants but also consultantships—continued throughout his years at Kansas. He was thoroughly convinced of the social value of the anthropologist’s multiple professional roles and the need for the highest ethical standards in carrying out these roles.
Henry Lundsgaarde is survived by his former wife, Anette, sons Peter, Thorsten, and twins Allan and Erik, and a granddaughter. (Tom Harding) 

DAWN RYAN, 60, died January 5, 1999, 10 days before her 61st birthday at Melbourne, Australia, of acute leukemia.
Born January 15, 1938, in Casino, New South Wales, Australia, Ryan’s anthropological interests began as a child with her curiosity about the traditions of the Australian Aborigines. She received her BA (1959) with First Class Honors in anthropology and her MA (1965) with Second Class Honors in anthropology, both at the U of Sydney, where her interests shifted to New Guinea cultures. In 1970, she received her PhD in anthropology at the U of Hawaii, where she was a grantee at the East-West Center. Important influences on Ryan’s student days were Ron Crocombe of the New Guinea Research Unit, Australian National U, where she served as a research assistant, and Alice Dewey and Raymond Firth, her professors at the U of Hawaii.
After completing her PhD, Ryan returned to Australia where she was Lecturer in Anthropology at Macquarie U in Sydney (1970-74). In 1974, she joined Monash U in Melbourne where she served as Senior Lecturer in the Department of Anthropology and Sociology until the time of her death.
Beginning in 1959, the ethnographic focus of Ryan’s research was Papua New Guinea, especially the Toaripi people in the Gulf District, where she investigated rural-urban migration, urbanization, the development of new local-level politico-economic structures and millenarian movements. This research resulted in her MA thesis “Social Change Among the Toaripi, Papua” and PhD thesis “Rural and Urban Villagers: A Bi-Local System in Papua.” After the completion of her PhD, Ryan frequently returned to the field to collect material for a longitudinal study of migration and urbanization which she was still pursuing at the time of her death.
Important publications stemming from this research include “Cliques, Factions and Leadership Among the Toaripi of Papua” (1978), “Bilocality and the Movement Between Village and Town: Toaripi, Papua New Guinea” (1985), and “Migration, Urbanization and Rural-Urban Links: Toaripi in Port Moresby” (1993).
Ryan was a marvelous raconteur with a sharp wit, and often entertained her friends and students with delightful stories of her many field adventures. In addition, she had a long-standing interest in film, and was active in several film societies in the Melbourne area. Her passion for film was perhaps matched by her eclectic love of music. Her fondness of cats and mystery stories was legendary among her friends, as were her culinary skills in Asian cuisine. Dawn Ryan’ survivors include sister, Kay Ryan, and brothers, Sydney Ryan and Rodney Ryan.
Memorial contributions may be made in her name to cancer research and the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. (H Arlo Nimmo) 

WALTER BRESETTE, 51, died on February 21, 1999 in Duluth, MN. A member of the Red Cliff Band of Lake Superior Chippewa in Wisconsin, Bresette was a spokesperson for environmental issues and recognized expert on Native American rights and treaties. He was the founder or co-founder of numerous environmental, treaty and cultural groups, including the Lake Superior Greens, Wisconsin Greens, Witness for Nonviolence, Midwest Treaty Network, Red Cliff Cultural Institute and the Woodland Indian Craft Cooperative Anishinabe Niijii. He had been a founding board member of WOJB Public Radio on the Lac Courte Oreilles Reservation, served as a host of the Anishinabe Way Cultural and Spiritual Sobriety Gatherings and Protect the EarthCommunity Gatherings in Northern Wisconsin. An award-winning writer and radio journalist, he was co-author with Rick Whaley of Walleye Warriors(1994), an account of the alliance of groups that supported the exercise of off-reservation treaty rights of the Lake Superior Chippewa in the 1980s and early 1990s. He served on the EPA’s National Environmental Justice Advisory Council. His career as an activist began in 1971 when he participated in the Chicago Indian Village, the first Indian occupation east of Alcatraz. He will be fondly remembered by Indian and non-Indian people for his passionate dedication to the rights of indigenous people, his commitment to inter-cultural dialogue, his powerful intellect, elegant speaking and writing, and delightful sense of humor. (Larry Nesper) 

JAMES P ANDERSON, 64, former site superintendent of Cahokia Mounds State Historic Site in Collinsville, IL, passed away in June 1998 at home in Polk City, IA. Anderson received his bachelors degree in anthropology from the U of Iowa and pursued graduate coursework at Southern Illinois U at Carbondale and at the U of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, and was involved in archaeological research in the American Bottom region. He worked with Melvin Fowler at UWM as psroject assistant on the Cahokia Mapping Project, serving as field director for excavations on the East and South Stockades and Mound 72. In 1971 he was hired by the Illinois State Museum as Associate Curator of Archaeology to establish a small museum and educational programs at Cahokia Mounds, in cooperation with the Illinois Department of Conservation (IDOC), which managed the site at that time. With several assistants over the years, he transformed the former ranger’s residence into a fine small museum with over 30 exhibits, a mini-theater, gift shop and outside reconstructions and numerous special events and educational programs. He continued overseeing excavations of the East Stockade, established a Public Field School program and was instrumental in the formation of the Cahokia Mounds Museum Society, a not-for-profit support group. When IDOC resumed control of the museum and interpretive programs, he was appointed Site Interpreter and later became Site Superintendent, a position he held until he left in 1983. (William R Iseminger) 

FERENC BAKÓ, 82, retired director of the Heves county regional museums, leading expert on the Palóc sub-ethnic group, honorary citizen of the Hungarian city of Eger died in November 1998, after a long illness.
Bakó was born August 28, 1917 in Nagyvárad, Hungary. After the Trianon Treaty of 1920, when large chunks of Hungary were ceded to neighboring countries, Nagyvárad became Oradea and part of Romania, the Bakó family moved to Eger. After completing high school, Bakó moved to Budapest to study at the Péter Pázmány U (now Eötvös Lóránt U). After receiving his university degrees, he was doing practical training in the Ethnographic Museum of Budapest when he became fascinated with museums along with historical and cultural preservation. After a stint in the Hungarian Army, Bakó returned to Eger, where he was first named director of the Castle Museum, then, between 1962 and retirement in 1979, director of all Heves County Museums.
While in the field, Bakó not only collected and analyzed thousands of objects for museums, but studied the ways in which traditional rural culture was disintegrating as a result of centrally directed, forced industrialization and collectivization. He was doing both “salvage ethnography” and meticulous research about processes of sociocultural transformation, and rural strategies of reviving selected traditions in northern Hungary. Bakó was a prolific writer. Unfortunately only a few of his pioneering publications on the Palóc sub-ethnic group, the Roma in northern Hungary, and his study among Canadian-Hungarians are known in the West. The majority of his publications appeared in Hungarian and German and only a few are available in English (primarily in Acta Ethnographica). Among his numerous publications are the 5-volume, Palócok [The Palóc] (1989-91); Egri Borospincék [The Wine cellars of Eger] (1961). He co-authored the three-volume, Heves Megye Müemlékei [Historical Monuments of Heves County] (1967). Among his later publications are Egri Kalauz [Guide to Eger] (1968); B|kki barlanglakások [Cave-dwellings in the B|kk Mountains] (1977); Parasztházak, udvarok a Mátra vidékén [Peasant Houses and Courtyards in the Mátra region] (1978); Palócföldi Lakodalmas [Weddings in the land of the Palóc] (1987); Kanadai Magyarok [Canadian-Hungarians] (1988); Kézmüvesség egy alföldi faluban [Folk craftsmanship in a village on the Great Hungarian Plain] (1992). Bakó received numerous awards from professional societies and was recipient of the Gold Merit Award of the Hungarian Republic.
Bakó remained intensely involved in research and writing until the last years before death, when illness prevented him to do so. Always busy, he was the most generous colleague and friend, managing to find time for those of us, his decidedly junior colleagues fortunate enough to do research close to Eger. We enjoyed both his and his family’s warm, remarkably kind hospitality, patience and support. We are going to miss him tremendously.
Bakó is survived by Judit Bakó, who, in addition to being his wife for over a half a century, was also unquestionably his right hand in all his endeavors, daughter Zsuzsanna Bakó and son-in-law Zsolt Varsányi. (Éva V Huseby-Darvas) 

PATRICIA S BRIDGES, 43, associate professor of anthropology at Queens College and the Graduate Center, CUNY, died February 16, 1999 after a 17-month struggle with cancer. Born in Lexington, MO. Bridges received her BA from Wichita State U (1977) and MA (1979) and PhD (1985) from the U of Michigan. She joined the Queens College anthropology department in 1985, after teaching at Hunter College, CUNY for a year.
Bridges’ primary research interest was the assessment of physical activity patterns from skeletal morphology using biomechanical analysis of long bone dimensions and patterns of degenerative joint disease. She had recently begun to study warfare-related injuries. She made numerous important contributions to our understanding of how the skeleton reflects, and does not reflect, activities during life. In her review of skeletal biology and behavior in Evolutionary Anthropology (1996), and in her chapter, “Osteological correlates of weapon use” (A Life in Science: Papers in Honor of J Lawrence Angel, J E Buikstra, ed, 1990), she cautioned against linking skeletal features to specific activities in an overly simplistic way. She authored a review of prehistoric arthritis in the Americas (Annual Review of Anthropology, 1992), and, with M L Powell and A M Mires, was editor of What Mean These Bones? Studies in Southeastern Bioarchaeology (1991). Most of her research, discussed in an article in Current Anthropology (1989) and in numerous articles in the American Journal of Physical Anthropology, dealt with the transition from hunting and gathering to agriculture in the middle Tennessee River valley, especially sex differences in activity patterns. She completed a similar analysis of Woodland period populations in the lower Illinois River valley shortly before her death.
Bridges was a valued colleague willing to do more than her share. She served on numerous department and university committees, and from 1994 until January 1999, was Chair of the Queens’ anthropology department. She was also a gifted teacher. She worked with PhD students at the CUNY Graduate Centers and other institutions, and developed a number of very popular biological anthropology courses for undergraduate majors at Queens. She especially enjoyed teaching introductory courses, and was a long-standing, enthusiastic participant in a special program for first semester students. Despite considerable pain, she continued to teach until the week before her death.
Although serious and highly professional about her research, teaching and administrative work, Bridges also had a delightfully irreverent spirit. At Halloween she could be counted on to wear her skeleton earrings with blinking lights to class, and her office contained an impressive shrine to Elvis Presley. She was also a lover of the natural world, an avid birder and gardener, persistently battling the odds against growing her own tomatoes in New York City. Her sense of humor, leadership, intelligence and overall good sense will be greatly missed.
Bridges is survived by her husband, John Blitz. Contributions in her memory may be made to the Queens College Foundation (Patricia Bridges Fund), Department of Anthropology, Queens College, Flushing, NY 11367. (Sara Stinson, Karen Rosenberg and Mary Lucas Powell) 

ROBERT TAYLOR BRAY, 74, professor emeritus in anthropology at the U of Missouri-Columbia, died on February 16, 1999. For 22 years he was director of the university’s Lyman Research Center and Hamilton Field School adjacent to Van Meter State Park in Saline County, MO, the site of the Missouri Indian village, known as the Utz site. For many summers he conducted archaeological investigations at summer field schools for university students and volunteers. In 1991 his definitive report on his work at the site was published in the Missouri Archaeologist.
Born January 23, 1925, on a farm near Ozark, MO, Bray received his Master’s degree in anthropology from the U of Missouri (1955). His advisor, Carl Chapman, brought him into a number of other prehistoric excavations over the years in Missouri, including Table Rock reservoir and the Pomme de Terre project. Bray worked for the National Park Service as an archaeologist (1955-59) In that capacity he worked on and conducted excavations at Effigy Mounds National Monument, Iowa; Ocmulgee National Munument, Georgia; and Custer Battlefield National Monument (Reno-Benteen Battle site), the latter work published posthumously in 1996 in the Missouri Archaeologist.
In spite of working about 22 years in charge of investigations and the museum at the Utz site, where he resided until 1981 with his family, Bray’s most lasting contribution is to historical archaeology. He continued to work with the National Park Service and conducted excavations at the historically significant Wilson’s Creek Battlefield National Park near Springfield, MO. Much of the historical archaeology was for the Missouri state park system including the Battle of Lexington State Park, Bollinger Mill, Watkin’s Mill, first Missouri State Capitol in St Charles, Lohman’s Landing in Jefferson City, several sites in historic Arrow Rock, MO, including the First School House site and John Caleb Bingham home. Bray conducted numerous investigations at the 1840s Mormon town of Nauvoo, IL, including the first home of the parents of Joseph Smith, Jr. After moving to Columbia, he also conducted excavations over several years for student credit and for volunteers at the historic Conley House site on the U of Missouri-Columbia campus. Bray taught classes in historical archaeology and museum methods during his 30 years with the university’s Anthropology Department.
Bray was active with the Missouri Archaeological Society, which honored him with its distinguished service award in 1990. He served as editor of the Missouri Archaeologist for 29 years (1960-88). He served on the Missouri State Historical Preservation Committee, and was a member of the Society for Historical Archaeology, Missouri Historical Society, Missouri States Parks Association and the Missouri Heritage Trust. Bray has about 78 publications to his credit, covering a life-time of work in anthropology and archaeology. In addition he prepared a 508-page personal memoir of his life and his genealogy (1991), a personal, revealing document of his busy and productive life and an account especially valuable for the history of historical archaeology in Missouri.
Robert Bray is survived by his wife of over 50 years, the former Joan Pinkley; their son Curtis, daughter Jan Kliethermes, and three grandchildren. (Edited from Ray Wood’s longer obituary by Earl H Lubensky) 

PARKER PAUL MCKENZIE, 101, Kiowa historian, linguist and elder, passed away on March 5, 1999. He was the oldest member of the Kiowa Tribe of Oklahoma and a bundle keeper for the Kiowa people. McKenzie was also an accomplished self-taught linguist whose knowledge and talents were often compared to those of Sequoyah, and was a friend and colleague of John Peabody Harrington.
McKenzie was born on November 15, 1897, in a Kiowa camp south of what is now Mountain View, Kiowa County, OK, and was enrolled under his Kiowa name, San-Tau-Koy. He spoke no English until he began attending school at Rainy Mountain boarding school. Later he went to the Phoenix Indian boarding school, Lamson Business College and Oklahoma A&M. In March 1920, McKenzie began employment in the Indian Monies Section of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Anadarko Agency. After 39 years of meritorious service, he retired in June 1959.
McKenzie’s association with JP Harrington began in 1918, when he served as a part-time Kiowa consultant for the legendary BAE linguist during Harrington’s preliminary work with the language, and they subsequently became very productive co-workers. McKenzie supplied much of the data for Harrington’s Vocabulary of the Kiowa Language (BAE Bulletin 84, 1928). In 1948, Harrington and McKenzie published A Popular Account of the Kiowa Indian Language (SAR Monographs 12), using a phonetic alphabet devised by McKenzie. In recent decades McKenzie had worked closely with linguist Laurel Watkins, and the two published A Grammar of Kiowa (1984).
McKenzie was long recognized by his Tribe as the principal scholar of the Kiowa language. His painstaking attention to detail and nuances of meaning were legendary. In 1991 the U of Colorado presented McKenzie—then a mere 94—with an honorary doctorate in Humane Letters for his accomplishments as “citizen-scholar, tribal elder, historian and respected authority on the language of the Kiowa.”
McKenzie is survived by his daughters, Esther Hayes and Kathryn Collier, and by 12 grandchildren, 35 great-grandchildren and one great-great-grandchild. (Liz Pollard) 

PAUL STIRLING, 77, died June 17, 1998. Stirling’s distinction as a social anthropologist arises from addressing central changes that have so marked the discipline over the past half-century, spanning his pioneering fieldwork in village Turkey (1949) and the equally pioneering publication of his intellectual legacy on the Internet (1998). His research in rural Turkey, together with his monograph, Turkish Village, set a high standard for the ethnography of “complex” societies. He emphasized process over structure, interactions between communities and with the state, and a focus on social change in his systematic ethnographic research of Turkish villagers and their descendents over more than 4 decades. He was continuously engaged in research, teaching and actively promoting the development of anthropology, both as a means for gaining knowledge and as a vehicle for improving social justice. Stirling believed that all anthropologists had a duty to serve as well as to learn. His support of and loyalty to students was legendary.
Born on October 13, 1920, Stirling read philosophy at Oxford, and continued with his doctoral studies under E Evans-Prichard. He was, with many others, influenced by Evans-Prichard to go “into the fields that had history.” The remarkable monograph that ensued was a model of rigorous and lucid ethnography. Turkish Village had profound influence in the study of both the Middle-East and the Mediterranean within anthropology and outside it.
Stirling’s first appointment was at the London School of Economics, where he worked with Raymond Firth. In 1965 he was appointed as the foundation professor at the then new U of Kent, where he remained. His appointment was formally in sociology, but in the fluid structure that characterized Kent he created anthropology by fiat. He worked closely with colleagues in Turkey, many of whom he trained, believing this was an important means to spread the benefits of anthropology to a country he owed much. He was active in the formation of several organizations for applied anthropology in the UK, including founding the Group for Anthropology in Policy and Practice in the early 1980s, and overseeing its successor, the British Association for Anthropology in Policy and Practice in 1988.
Stirling was intellectually relentless in his demand for and pursuit of “causal models” for social change, while being the first to cast doubt on the suitability of existing means of achieving this goal. In the final decade of his life he became convinced that changes in social knowledge, its transmission and its distribution were key factors driving social change. This was, in part, the motive for his final project, which was to build an archive of all of his available research data, including his fieldnotes, his wife Margaret’s fieldnotes, and notes from his Turkish colleagues, photographs, formal household and individual survey data and his published work resulting from this data, including Turkish Village. Paul Stirling’s Archives are available at http://lucy.ukc.ac.uk/Stirling.
This might be seen to betray the great humility that Stirling demonstrated throughout his life. He characterized it as exposing his weakness so the research might continue. (Michael D Fischer) 

DENIS JOSEPH IVAN WILLIAMS, 75, retired scholar of Guyanese and West Indian archaeology, died in Guyana during the summer of 1998. Born in 1923 in Georgetown, Guyana, Williams was regarded by many as a West Indian Leonardo da Vinci. In addition to being a scholar of Guyana’s prehistory, he was known as a novelist, painter, editor, lecturer and teacher. As a British Council Scholar, Williams attended the Camberwell School of Art in London (1946-48), mounting a number of one-man exhibitions during the 1950s in London. Following appointments to the Central School of Fine Art, London (1950-57) and Slade School of Fine Art, U of London (1950-52), he served as a Lecturer of Fine Arts at the School of Fine Art in Khartoum, Sudan (1957-62), School of African Studies, U of Ife, Nigeria (1962-66), Makerere U, Uganda (1964, 1966), and School of African and Asian Studies, U of Lagos, Nigeria (1966-67). In 1967 he was appointed Director of Art for the Ministry of Education, Social Development and Culture in Guyana, during which time he was instrumental in founding the E R Burrowes School of Art and Walter Roth Museum of Anthropology.
During the 1960s, Williams was awarded several research grants for fieldwork on traditional African metallurgy, with a particular focus on Yoruba bronze art. During the 1970s he actively pursued his interest in the tribal art of Guyana, particularly in the region’s petroglyphs. He earned his MA in Prehistory from the U of Guyana (1980) and D Litt (Honoris causa) from the U of the West Indies (1989). In addition to numerous publications in major scientific and fine arts journals on topics ranging from Meso-Indian fishtraps to early Amazonian pottery, Williams published such books as, Other Leopards (1963, 1983), The Third Temptation (1968), Image and Idea in the Arts of the Caribbean (1970); Icon and Image: A Study of Sacred and Secular Forms of African Classical Art (1974), Habitat and Culture in Ancient Guyana (1984) and Prehistoric Cultures of the Iwokrama Rain Forest Reserve (1996). He also published several Caribbean short stories, including “A Long, Long Pause” (Island Voices, 1970) and “The Sperm of God,” (New Writings in the Caribbean, 1972).
In 1978, Williams served as Chairman of the National Trust of Guyana. In 1980, he was a Visiting Research Scholar in the Department of Anthropology at the Smithsonian Institution. Among his many awards, Williams received the Golden Arrow of Achievement (1973) and the Cacique Crown of Honour (1989) from the Government of Guyana. He also was presented with a Certificate of Recognition, the Gabriel Mistral Award for Culture by the Organization of American States (1994) and shortly before his death, with the Cowrie Circle by the Commonwealth Association of Museums (1998).
According to Betty J Meggers (Smithsonian Institution), Williams was a remarkable person, intelligent, dedicated, honest, hard-working and not given the recognition he deserved for his contribution to the archaeology of Guyana. 

ERIC ROBERT WOLF, 76, died March 6, 1999, days after finishing a collection of his published and unpublished essays (U of California Press, forthcoming). Born in 1923, he spent his earliest years in Vienna after which his family, who were Jewish, moved to the Sudetenland. Memories of the Depression and the looming menace of Nazism would haunt his future anthropology. After a stay in England, he immigrated to New York (1940), enrolling in Queens College. Interrupting his education, he volunteered for the Tenth Mountain Division of the US Army, entering combat in Italy and earning a Silver Star.
After the War, Wolf completed a BA at Queens and PhD at Columbia, both in anthropology. Critical of the late Boasians for disconnecting culture from history and material circumstances, he welcomed Julian Steward’s 1947 Columbia appointment. In a study group nicknamed the “Mundial Upheaval Society,” he, Sidney Mintz, Stanley Diamond, Morton Fried and others discussed Steward’s new direction as well as Marxist theory. Wolf’s dissertation grew out of Steward’s Puerto Rico project.
Early 1950s fieldwork in Mexico, followed by archival and archaeological studies, produced Sons of the Shaking Earth (1959). The book highlights the ecological and economic underpinnings of Mexico’s “nuclear” areas and their eventual integration into a single state. Related articles (eg “The Virgin of Guadalupe”) outlined an approach to state integration critical of “national character” studies.
Wolf’s landmark 1966 book, Peasants, explored peasants’ relationships to states and compared their sociocultural forms. His intended audience included development experts whose paradigms, he believed, wrongfully depicted peasant societies as “amorphous.” The political passion underlying this concern is evident in Peasant Wars of the Twentieth Century (1969) comparing 6 cases of peasant revolution, one being Vietnam. At the U of Michigan in 1965, Wolf, with Marshall Sahlins, had been an originator of the first Teach-In against the Vietnam War. In the late 1960s, with Joseph Jorgensen, he guided the Ethics Committee of the AAA in its investigations of ethnographic research being used for counter-insurgency in Thailand.
Wolf’s Europe and the People Without History (1982) traces the expansion of European mercantile, then industrial capitalism as this mode of production dislodged peoples living under “kin-ordered” and “tributary” modes. The book synthesizes ethnographic and historical accounts of the new sociocultural entities and the wider-ranging systems of relations through which these peoples sought shelter, again challenging static views of culture.
It was Wolf’s lifelong project to account for Nazism. His last book, Envisioning Power; Ideologies of Dominance and Crisis (1999), pursues the daring strategy of juxtaposing this phenomenon with two situations (Aztec sacrifice and Kwakiutl potlatching) in which societies experiencing deep anxiety about the future succumbed to the power of cosmic and frenzied ideologies.
Eric Wolf was a towering intellectual. The above books have been translated into several languages, as was his 1964 Anthropology. He co-authored or edited 6 additional books and published some 100 articles. His awards included a Guggenheim Fellowship, NIH Career Award, J S Staley Prize, MacArthur Foundation Fellowship and election to the National Academy of Sciences. The Universities of Michigan, Vienna, Amsterdam and Queens College granted him honorary doctorates.
Wolf taught at Illinois, Virginia, Yale and Chicago before his 1962 Michigan appointment. In 1971, he married Sydel Silverman (his second wife) and became Distinguished Professor at CUNY’s Lehman College and Graduate School. Throughout his career, scholars of many nationalities and disciplines sought his counsel. A treasured teacher, he was also perpetually eager to learn from others. His humanity and intellect have together produced an enduring legacy for anthropology and the world. He is survived by Sydel, two sons, two step-daughters and three grandchildren. Contributions to Wolf’s memorial fund may be sent to the Eric R Wolf Fund for Student Research, Anthropology Program, Graduate School, CUNY, 33 W 42nd St, New York, NY 10036. (Jane Schneider) 

ZHUSHENG WANG, 50, Head of the new Department of Anthropology in Yunnan U, died March 14, 1999, of cholecyst duct cancer in Kunming (PRC). Born December 4,1945, at Guiyang, Guizhou Province, China, Wang received his PhD in 1991 from the State U of New York, Stony Brook, with a Wenner-Gren Foundation Developing Countries Fellowship. His dissertation was based, upon several years of field research among the Jingpo (Kachin) of Southwestern China. A book based on a much revised version of that dissertation, The Jingpo: Kachin Of The Yunnan Plateau, was published in 1997 by the Southeast Asia Program of the Arizona State U. In addition, he published several substantial articles on the economic anthropology of the minorities of Southwest China, in Chinese, starting in 1984.
Wang began his graduate studies only in mid life, and since taking his degree and returning to China he rose in his profession rapidly; first at the Central Institute of Nationalities in Beijing, then at Kunming, where he quickly founded the University’s anthropology department. There he established a sound teaching and research program, and also organized more than one large international conference on such topics as anthropological theory and tourism anthropology (which will now proceed this spring without the presence of this excellent facilitator), focusing on China. He also began a group research project on Chinese in Southeast Asia (Thailand), as well as continuing his fieldwork on the Jingpo and other minority nationalities in southern Yunnan. He was inestimably helpful to many researchers from Taiwan and from other countries who needed to work in China.
Wang was rapidly becoming widely respected by colleagues and friends, including his teachers, from all over the world working on the anthropology of the China-Southeast Asia interface and on a major revision of the theoretical work begun by Edmund Leach on “oscillation theory” about upland-State relations in this part of the world. His extremely promising future as a major scholar was sadly cut short.
Wang is survived by his wife, Hui Yang, herself an anthropologist who worked on the Jingpo, and their daughter Hanna and a much older daughter by a previous marriage. (F K Lehman) 

SARAH KIRSTEN BEAN, 30, died of meningitis February 9, 1999, in the course of ethnographic fieldwork near Petra, Jordan, toward her MA thesis. Born in Boston, MA, August 11, 1968, she attended Colby College, ME (BA, Anthropology, 1990), worked as an archaeologist in Hawaii and Greece, and, since 1995, pursued graduate studies at the U of Missouri.
In the course of three periods of work near Petra, Bean developed close personal relations with Bedouin families of the area, relations which were of much greater importance to her than her life-long battle with cystic fibrosis. A gifted and perceptive ethnographer, she also expressed herself in verse: “We supped with your men tonight, Lawrence, /proud bedu/sweet sage tea—merimeria,/ olives and aubergines/we laughed in Arabic/next to 8th century baths. . . . “She received a U of Missouri departmental award in spring 1998 for a paper, “Knowledge in an American-Islamic Community.” Bean is survived by her mother, Marjorie, and brother, Jeffrey. (Peter M Gardner)

DIENJE MARIA ELISABETH KENYON, 38, died March 25, 1998, at home in Bellingham, WA. Born February 4, 1960, Kenyon was in the PhD program at SUNY-Binghamton at the time of her death, having also attended Penn State U as a graduate student. Her undergraduate degree in anthropology was from the U of Toronto.
Kenyon taught as an instructor at Indiana U of Pennsylvania and worked for IUP Archaeological Services in various capacities. Her research interests included zooarchaeology and taphonomy in both Paleolithic old world and new world contexts. At the time of her death she was analyzing faunal materials from the Lorenz Overlook site in Alaska for her dissertation. She had a wide variety of field experience in both the old and new worlds, including Banks Island, Ontario, New York and Pennsylvania, Sardenia, France and England. She is survived by her husband Todd A Koetje, Asst Prof at Western Washington U and their son Neall. A memorial fund awarding annual grants to women archaeozoology students at the beginning of their graduate studies has been created through the Society for American Archaeology. (Sarah Neusis and Todd A Koetje)

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