MISCELLANEOUS OBITUARIES
of
ANTHROPOLOGISTS


MARY G HODGE, 50, associate professor at U Houston at Clear Lake, died August 21, 1996. Born March 30, 1946, Hodge was an outstanding Aztec scholar, a tireless ethnohistorian and a careful field archaeologist. Instrumental in refining the ceramic sequence associated with the appearance and expansion of the Aztec state, she was also an emerging theoretician with a strong interest in the diversity of states and empires. Hodge was a very loyal and generous friend to all who knew her. 
With her first book, Aztec City States (1984), Hodge broke new ground in Mesoamerican archaeology and state theory. She demonstrated considerable variability in political and administrative organization among the various polities that comprised the core of the Aztec empire. Even though there had been many previous contributions on the Aztec state by others, their primary focus had usually been the capital of Tenochtitlan, while Hodge's emphasis was on the middle and lower levels of the administrative hierarchy. To understand the dynamics of bureaucratic and administrative decision making for the Aztec state, Hodge argued that these lower-order units of the regional hierarchy must become a focus of study. Her work filled a major gap in our knowledge, and her discovery of the different structures of Aztec polities constitutes a major ethnohistoric contribution to Mesoamerican archaeology.
Hodge published a second book, entitled Economies and Polities in the Aztec Realm (1994, coedited with Michael E Smith). This volume featured her outstanding ability to integrate ethnohistory with archaeology. A third book, Aztec Imperial Strategies (coauthored with Frances Berdan, Richard Blanton, Elizabeth Boone, Michael Smith and Emily Umberger), appeared in 1996.
One of Hodge's ongoing projects (in collaboration with Leah Minc, Hector Neff and James Blackman) involved restudying ceramics collected on survey by Jeffrey Parsons and others. One goal was to determine the degree of fit, over time, between (1) centers of ceramic production, (2) distribution of specific types of pottery and (3) the boundaries of political units.
At the time of her death, Hodge was putting the finishing touches on still more manuscripts, including a book on her excavations at Chalco in the Basin of Mexico (a monograph to be published by U Pittsburgh). Her article "What Is a City-State? Archaeological Measures of Aztec City-States and City-State Systems" will appear in The Archaeology of City-States, edited by Deborah Nichols and Thomas Charlton and published by the Smithsonian Press.
Mary Hodge received her BA (1968) from Kalamazoo C, and MA (1978) and PhD (1983) from U Michigan. All of us feel her loss keenly, not only because she was such a close personal friend for so many years but also because we could see that some of her best works were "manuscripts in progress" that were left unfinished. Hodge's professional career was cut short with so much left to be done. (Joyce Marcus, with contributions by Michael E Smith) 

JUDITH JOEL, 67, an anthropologist and linguist specializing in the Yuman languages, died at her home in Louisville, KY, on August 17, 1996, after a long fight with cancer. Joel was born in Los Angeles, CA, on February 2, 1929. She graduated from Antioch College (1954), attended the Linguistic Institute at U Chicago in summer 1954 and in 1955 enrolled in the graduate program in anthropology and sociology at U California, Los Angeles, where she studied with Harry Hoijer and was awarded a PhD (1966). She married fellow anthropologist Frederic Hicks in 1958.
Joel taught courses in anthropology on a part-time basis (1966-89), first at Bellarmine College in Louisville, and beginning in 1971 at Indiana U Southeast, in New Albany. She always considered herself an anthropologist first and a linguist second, regarding language as primarily an aspect of culture. Among the courses she taught were North American Indians, racial and ethnic minorities, race and class and social organization. A very important part of her life was devoted to political advocacy of civil rights, human rights and the fight against racism. To these causes, she gave of her time and efforts selflessly and with passion.
Joel's linguistic work centered on Paipai, a Yuman language that had not been previously described. It is spoken in several communities in northern Baja California, Mexico, the largest of which is Santa Catarina. Her work on Paipai was characterized by its superb scholarship, revealed in careful attention to accurate transcription, thoughtful analysis and relevance to an understanding of the culture and history of its speakers. Among her publications are "Classification of the Yuman Languages" (Studies in Californian Linguistics, William Bright, ed, 1964), "Some Paipai Accounts of Food Gathering" (Journal of California Anthropology, 1976) and "The Yuman Word for Bean as a Clue to Prehistory" (Journal of California Anthropology Papers in Linguistics, 1978). A paper on the Paipai-Arizona Pai divergence is in press. In keeping with her interest in human rights, she also published "Anthropology and the Demystification of Racism," in Racism and the Denial of Human Rights: Beyond Ethnicity (Marvin Berlowitz and Ronald S Edari, eds, 1984).
Much of the linguistic material Joel collected remains unpublished, particularly several hundred pages of texts, meticulously transcribed in her fine and clear hand. In compliance with her wishes, her original field notes have been deposited in the Yuman archive of U California San Diego, where they can be made available to qualified researchers. Joel is survived by husband Frederic Hicks, professor emeritus of anthropology at U Louisville, and mother Janet Joel. (Margaret Langdon)

ROBERT N RAPOPORT, 72, died November 4, 1996, in London, England, after an accidental injury. Born November 1, 1922, Rapoport served as a US Army Lieutenant in China and subsequently studied social anthropology at Harvard, where he earned his doctorate (1951) under Clyde Kluckhohn. During this period he published his first monograph on Navaho religious values. This study reflected what was to become his abiding professional and personal interest: the importance of values (not mere technology) governing the fate of social institutions, and the role of the social sciences in ameliorating the lives of people. These threads were woven into the fabric of his personal motivation and career choices.
Rapoport's first professional position as an anthropologist was at Cornell U (1951-54), where he served as assistant director of the Sterling County Mental Health Project. The ultimate purpose of this effort was to understand mental health problems and provide needed services to an impoverished rural county in Nova Scotia. This was described in Peoples of Cover and Woodlot (with C Hughes and others). Subsequently (1954-57), Rapoport acted as director of research at Belmont Hospital, England, on a pioneering action-research project that utilized the forces of a therapeutic community to effect personality changes in people with long-standing interpersonal acting-out problems (Community as a Doctor; New Perspectives on a Therapeutic Community). It is during this period that Rapoport met his wife and professional collaborator, Rhona. For the next few years, he occupied various academic posts at Harvard, Boston U and the Tavistock Institute, London.
Returning to England in the late 1970s, Robert and Rhona Rapoport formed the Institute of Family and Environmental Research, where this collaborative team carried out a series of studies detailing the intimate aspects of family life as they interacted with community institutions and values. These studies pointed to emerging trends and creative possibilities for community interventions and change. The many subsequent publications that related to family, children and community constituted the important core of the Rapoports' professional contribution. The groundbreaking volume on Dual Career Families, coauthored with Rhona Rapoport, was probably the most seminal of his 12 books and 50 published articles. 
In the past few years Rapoport turned his attention to the emerging trend of the "globalization" of societies and the need to develop a new ethic and social values appropriate to this process. Consistent with his interest in family and children, he was completing a volume on the need to educate children in the family to prepare them to participate in an emerging "one world." His most recent articles were "Search for a Global Ethic" (Journal of Environment Psychology, 1993) and "Families as Educators" (Childhood, 1994). An overview of Rapoport's professional work smacks refreshingly of an earlier era of scholarship in anthropology: a concern with larger societal issues, values, social amelioration and action-oriented projects.
To colleagues and friends whose lives crossed his own, Rapoport was always generous with help and advice, modest and gentle. He will be mourned and missed. Condolences to Rhona, his two children and grandchildren, who provided a center for an ever-searching soul. [Seymour Parker]

STANLEY R WITKOWSKI, 54, professor of anthropology at Northern Illinois U, died on October 30, 1996 of a stroke at St Anthony's Hospital in Rockford, IL, the medical facility where he was born 54 years earlier (December 26, 1941). He had been admitted to the hospital 13 days earlier, when he collapsed on the NIU campus in DeKalb after attending a curriculum meeting.
Witkowski earned both MA (1969, anthropology) and PhD (1971, cultural anthropology and linguistics) from U Iowa. He undertook postdoctoral work at Northwestern U and U Iowa. Doctoral and postdoctoral training involved fieldwork among the Slavey of northern Alberta and the Northwest Territories (1970) and among the Hopi of Arizona (1972). In 1972 he took a position as a cross-cultural research specialist for the Human Relations Area Files, leaving this post in 1975 to teach anthropology and linguistics in the anthropology department at NIU. He served for two years (1979-81) as chair of the department and achieved full professor status in 1983.
Witkowski's research and teaching interests included cross-cultural and cross-language research methodology and substantive findings, language and culture relationships, language change and language universals. Contributions to the literature include papers on kinship, methodology in comparative research (eg, Galton's problem, coding reliability), color nomenclature, ethnoanatomy, historical linguistics of Mesoamerican and Siouan languages and lexical universals (especially those involving polysemy, marking, kinship, figurative language, ethnobiology and language contact). Some major publications include "Guttman Scaling of Semantic Distinctions" (Kinship Studies in the Morgan Centennial Year, Priscilla Reining, ed, 1972), "Ethnographic Fieldwork: Optimal versus Non-Optimal Conditions" (Behavior Science Research, 1978), and "Marking Reversals and Cultural Importance" (Language, 1983). He also published in American Anthropologist, American Ethnologist, Ethnology, International Journal of American Linguistics, Journal of Anthropological Research and Man. Witkowski's most recent works are essays on family and household structure, language, historical linguistics and color terminology published in the Encyclopedia of Cultural Anthropology (1996).
Witkowski freely shared his exciting and insightful ideas on anthropological and linguistic topics with those around him, and generously sought to include students and colleagues in his research and writing projects resulting in many collaborative contributions. The writer of this notice, as well as many others, benefited significantly from this predisposition.
In 1961 Witkowski married Cara Christiansen, a union that produced 4 children: Judith, Brenda, Matthew and Linda. In addition to his former wife and children, he is survived by a special friend, Jonni Kettman. 
Donations in his name supporting student research in anthropology may be made to the Stanley R Witkowski Memorial Fund, Northern Illinois U Foundation, DeKalb, IL 60115. (Cecil H Brown)

JUDITH A BLOMBERG, 55, graduate student in linguistic anthropology at Southern Methodist U, died in an automobile accident June 12, 1996, near Anadarko, OK. Born in 1941 in St Louis, MO, Blomberg resumed her education in 1975 after raising two sons. She graduated from Southern Methodist with a major in anthropology and Ibero-American studies (1981) and completed her MA in cultural and linguistic anthropology only a month before her death. Blomberg had just begun a 9-month field study of the Plains Apache (Kiowa-Apache) language for her doctoral dissertation. In addition to collecting data for a descriptive grammar, she was hoping to develop learning materials for the community. Blomberg is survived by her husband Theodore Blomberg and sons Matthew and John.

NINA S DE FRIEDEMANN, 67, anthropologist and AfroAmericanist, passed away October 29, 1998 in Bogota, Colombia. She was a researcher with the Expedicion Humana of the Universidad Javeriana. She studied anthropology at the Instituto Colombiano de Antropologia, Hunter College, CUNY and UCLA. She was the primary researcher in the field of AfroColombian studies, and since 1991 served on the UNESCO commission on the African diaspora in the Americas. Since 1993 De Friedemann was the Latin American coordinator of a joint program (U of Dakar and El Colegio de Mexico) on the south Atlantic. She was the founding Director of the journal, America Negra, and was editing the current issue at the time of her death.
De Friedemann was active internationally and regularly lectured at universities and professional conferences throughout the Americas, Europe and Africa. She was a Fulbright Visiting Professor at the U of Alabama, and on different occasions she was also an invited professor at Georgia State U and the Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas in Caracas. She was also a research associate of the Social Change Research Center at Emory U.
De Friedemann was an avid researcher who made prolonged annual field trips, starting in the 1960s. Her original work was on the islands of San Andres and Providencia, but later she focused her research on coastal groups in Colombia, including Barbacoas and Guapi (Pacific Littoral) and Palenque (Atlantic Coast). In her first book Mineria, Descendencia y Orfebreria Artesanal [Mining, Descent and Craft Goldwork] (1974), she identified the essentially African character of lineages among the inhabitants of the Guelmambi River. This recognition of the importance of the African cultural heritage among Afro-Colombians led to a series of research and study trips to Africa which she linked with her continuing work in Colombia.
De Friedemann was one of the rare anthropologists who was also a literati, and she became known as one of Colombia's best writers. She was President of the Colombian Society of Writers, and in 1987 was nominated by Colombia for the OAS Gabriela Mistral Inter American Award for the outstanding writer of the year. She wrote and edited 16 books and numerous articles on anthropological themes, including AfroColombian, African and Colombian Indian cultures. Among her latest books are Etnopoesia del agua: Amazonia y Litoral Pacifico [Ethnopoetry of Water: Amazonia and Pacific Littoral] (1997), Fiestas: Celebrations and Rituals in Colombia (1995), Entre la tierra y el cielo: magia y leyendas del Choco [Between the Earth and the Sky: Magic and Legends of the Choco] (1995), La saga del negro: presencia Africana en Colombia [The Saga of Blacks: African Presence in Colombia] (1993).
De Friedemann is survived by her husband Robert Friedemann, daughters Nancy and Greta, and two grandsons. She was a passionate friend, colleague and family member whose smile, fast wit and incisive mind are sorely missed by all who shared her world. (Ronald J Duncan)

JAMES ROBERT MCLEOD, 49, associate professor of anthropology at Ohio State U, died suddenly on November 20, 1998, at his home in Mansfield, OH, from internal bleeding due to ulcers. He had just learned of the award of his second Fulbright assignment to Samara State U (Russia) and was looking forward to teaching there in 1999. He was also looking forward to the presidency of the Central States Anthropological Society in the millennial year, having just been elected second Vice-President.
McLeod was an outstanding, demanding and very popular teacher, whether of undergraduates or Law School students, of Americans, Japanese or Russians. His efforts were recognized by numerous awards, beginning with an Outstanding Graduate Teaching Award (1980), and including the very prestigious Ohio State U Distinguished Alumni Teaching Award (1991) and appointment to the Executive Board of the Ohio State Academy of Teaching, organized to improve undergraduate instruction.
McLeod was born July 21, 1949 in Illinois. When he was 9, the family moved to Japan where his father was stationed in the US Air Force. During their 4 years there, his parents took an active interest in Japanese society and culture, establishing enduring friendships with Japanese families. McLeod's curiosity about cultural differences seems to have had its roots in those years. After Japan, the family settled in California. McLeod attended Foothill Community College, Los Altos, and graduated from U C Berkeley (1972). He began graduate work at Ohio State in 1972, receiving his MA (1974) and PhD (1983). His dissertation, entitled "Politics and Government in East London," was based on research under the supervision of H S Morris at LSE.
Politics and government in complex societies and their rituals and symbols as expressed in popular culture, were at the forefront of McLeod's interests. He conducted research in the US, Japan and Russia, and dealt with these topics in his numerous publications, teaching and in extensive community outreach activities. In this connection, McLeod organized a series of international conferences in Mansfield (American Identity) and Samara (Political Culture in Contemporary Russia).
McLeod taught at Foothill College, San Jose State U, Ripon College, Franklin U and Denison U. He was named to the Ohio State U Regional Campus in Mansfield (1986). In 1993-94 McLeod taught at Minnesota State U in Akita, Japan and Samara State U, Samara, Russia (1996) on the faculty of Sociology and Politology, under a Fulbright grant. There he was named Distinguished Honored Professor and ex-officio Associate Director of Samara U's Center for International Relations. In the words of Alexey Nechayev: "As a scholar he fought with dangers which threaten modern society, and helped new hopes to grow."
Co-teaching a highly successful course on Law and Anthropology with Stanley Laughlin of the Ohio State Law School, McLeod challenged the students with a new perspective to their subject and gained their respect.
Kind, generous and funny, McLeod was devoted to his students, who loved him. He is survived by his wife Christine. A James McLeod Scholarship Fund has been established at Mansfield through the OSU Development Fund. (Erika Bourguignon)

KEITH L MORTON, 53, cultural anthropologist and professor at California State U-Northridge, died at his home in West Hills, CA, on August 8, 1998, after a year's struggle with cancer.
Born on November 8, 1944, in Lebanon, OR, Morton received his undergraduate degree in political science from Oregon State U in 1967. He then went on to the Ph.D. program in anthropology at the University of Oregon, receiving the degree in 1972. In the course of his training he did fieldwork in Washington state on the Yakima Indian reservation and in the Pacific in Tonga. As a field researcher he focused on the traditional center of ethnographic work--household organization--and his classical anthropological training was also manifest in the nuanced materialism of his theoretical outlook and in the comparative perspective that informed his studies. His publications include works on adoption (in Transactions in Kinship, I A Brady, ed, 1976) and circulating credit associations (Human Organization 37:50-56, 1978] in Tonga, as well as on the changing integration of Tongan households into the capitalist political economy (Pacific Studies 10:47-72, 1987). More recently he had turned his attention to California ethnology and had in preparation a contribution on Chumash political organization. Morton's combination of sympathy and skepticism towards his sources represented the best tradition of anthropological research.
Morton spent his whole post-doctoral career in the department of anthropology at CSUN. As a professor in a teaching institution, his primary professional commitment was to his students. He taught classes on Pacific and North American ethnology, economic anthropology and the anthropology of gender, as well as graduate and undergraduate core courses on anthropological theory. Morton was a thoughtful, responsible and well-informed teacher who combined clarity with kindness. He was much in demand as an adviser, serving over the past decade, for example, on over half of the department's MA thesis committees. He was the mainstay of the CSUN anthropology teaching program.
Morton was the product of public schooling when such schooling still worked, and he was deeply committed to seeing that others would have the opportunities he had received. Accordingly, he was indefatigable in his service to the institution of which he was a member. As chair of the department (1979-85), as coordinator of American Indian Studies (1994-97), in his service on innumerable committees, and as a rank-and-file member of the faculty, he insisted that CSUN live up to its mission. He was instrumental in the reforms that returned the anthropology department to a professional standard. Morton's colleagues valued him for his intelligence, his wit and good humor, his reasonable sense of the possible and for his insistence on doing what was right.
Keith Morton is survived by his wife of 33 years, Vicki, and by his children, Andrea and Joshua. (Antonio Gilman)

LAUREL ASHLEY PETERSON, 49, died in her home of lung cancer on June 19, 1997, in Los Angeles, CA, just short of her 50th birthday. She was a lecturer at California State U, Northridge at the time of her death and was a popular and dedicated teacher who taught courses in cultural anthropology and sex and gender. She continued teaching her classes until nearly the end, despite considerable pain, because teaching gave her such joy.
Peterson obtained her PhD at UCLA, studying under Robert B Edgerton. Her dissertation research was in the field of gerontology. After receiving her doctorate, she took several years off to raise 5 children, and was very active in their schools and lives. Laurel Peterson leaves behind many family members, friends and colleagues who will miss her great warmth, intelligence and hospitality. It is hard to believe that such a lively spirit has been extinguished so young. (Geri-Ann Galanti)

GALINA VASIL'EVNA STAROVOITOVA, 52, was a social-cultural anthropologist ("ethnosociologist" in Russian terms), Federation of Russia State Duma (parliament) deputy and well-known advocate of democracy and human rights. Having received death threats since her entry into politics in 1988, she was assassinated by two assailants in St Petersburg on November 20, 1998. Starovoitova had degrees in ethnography and psychology, and was a pioneer in urban anthropology with her analysis of multi-ethnic St Petersburg (then Leningrad) Etnicheskaia gruppa v sovremennom sovetskom gorode [The Ethnic Group in a Modern Soviet City], 1987. An experienced field researcher, Starovoitova studied such interethnic "hot spots" as Abkhazia and Nagorno-Karabakh.
In 1988, Starovoitova expressed sympathy with the Armenian movement to regain Karabakh from Azerbaijan; soon after she became the only Russian representing Armenia in the 1989 All-Union Congress of Peoples' Deputies. She worked closely with Andrei Sakharov on human rights, and struggled for reform and federalism. By 1992, when the Soviet Union broke up, she became President Yeltsin's main advisor on "nationalities affairs," but was fired over disagreements concerning the peaceful resolution of North Caucasus conflicts. Starovoitova was elected by a wide margin to Russia's parliament in 1990 from St Petersburg, and returned to the Duma in 1995. One of the most prominent women in Russia, she was co-chair of the Democratic Russia movement (with former prime minister Yegor Gaidar), and was considering a run for governor of the region around St Petersburg, as well as a run for President of Russia. She is survived by a son, Platon Barshevsky, a grandson, a physicist husband and a grieving nation. (Marjorie Mandelstam Balzer)

SARAH "SALLY" UHL, 47, passed away of cancer on October 21, 1998 in Atlanta, GA. Uhl earned her PhD at SUNY, Stony Brook (1988). While still a graduate student, she was editor of the journal Anthropology (1985-86), published by the Department of Anthropology. She also served as editor for Paragon House, U of Pennsylvania Press and Brown U (1986-87).
Uhl's research on family and friendship in Spain was ahead of its time. She courageously did fieldwork alone in the Andalusian village of Montemayor in the mid-1980s, collecting information on women's friendships and social relations--a topic much neglected in Spanish ethnography. After completing her dissertation, she published a number of ground-breaking articles on female friendships and inter-sex camaraderie in Andalusia. "Special friends" was published in Anthropology (1987), "Veiled friendship" in Ethnology (1989), and "Making the Bed in Escalona" in the American Ethnologist (1991). Uhl's dissertation was considered one of the best produced by a student at Stony Brook, and her advisors eagerly awaited its publication. Unhappily, her illness and tragic death ended that hope.
Uhl taught at CUNY Hunter C, Colorado C, SUNY Stony Brook and U of Maine, Orono (1987-91). She was well liked by students and colleagues, who expressed the wish that she could remain with their faculty. She also served as Special Projects Chair for the Society for the Anthropology of Europe and conducted and published a national survey of the membership for the section.
In 1991 Uhl decided to apply her anthropological knowledge in the educational consulting field, rather than remain a gypsy scholar. She worked at the Northeast and Islands Regional Lab in Andover, MA, where she applied her anthropological knowledge to provide key insights about public education (1992-96). As a senior researcher on the Designing Schools Initiative, she worked with two schools focusing on developing an action research approach to their reform efforts. She joined the team of teachers and administrators to design site-specific research and evaluation instruments to help the school collect and make sense of data, analyze internal structures and lines of communication and develop a critical stance of their reality. Her insights and supportive nature allowed her to become a welcome member of the school family. Her findings became the essence of numerous articles and presentations. Uhl also conducted an educational evaluation study of the Urban Sites Network of the National Writing Project with two colleagues in the field of education.
Most recently, Uhl's clients included the American Heart Association and City Year. She returned to the public school sector for the American Heart Association, where she researched the mechanisms used to successfully implement change in health education. For City Year, a national youth services organization, she conducted qualitative, process-oriented studies of school partnerships. The information was used to strengthen City Year's service in schools.
Sally Uhl's relatives and friends will remember her talents as a songwriter, wonderful sense of humor, love for her cats, passion for thoroughbred horses and racing, and the loyalty, support and insight she always gave. She is survived by her father, sister and two brothers. (David Gilmore, Jayne Howell, Ann Marie Powers, Susan Squires)

DARLENA K BLUCHER, 58, died of cancer October 28, 1997. She was born Darlena Bugbee in Waterville, ME, on December 17, 1938. She received her BA (1960), MA (1965), and PhD (1971) in anthropology at Brandeis U. As an undergraduate she was drawn to anthropology--especially Mesoamerican archaeology--by the inspiring teaching of the late Susanna Miles.
As a graduate student Blucher did ethnographic field work on Montserrat, British West Indies, during the summer of 1963. She spent the summers of 1964-66 as a graduate assistant for the Teotihuacan Mapping Project, directed by Rene Millon. From 1967-69 she did independent research at Teotihuacan, supported by an NSF dissertation support grant, excavating at the Patlachique phase site of Tlachinolpan, a few kilometers outside the urban zone. This resulted in her doctoral dissertation, "Late Preclassic Cultures in the Valley of Mexico: Pre-Urban Teotihuacan." It remains the fullest and best description of the ceramics and other artifacts of this period, when Teotihuacan was just starting its spectacular development. At the time of her final illness Blucher had completed most of the work needed to revise her study for publication, and she sent the manuscript and other documents to George L Cowgill, where they are deposited at Arizona State U. Her report will be published in the "Urbanization at Teotihuacan" series edited by Millon.
In 1973 Blucher moved to Arcata, CA, where she spent the next 20 years teaching anthropology and archaeology at Humboldt State U. She loved meeting and working with students and was particularly delighted with those who went on to further their careers in anthropology. She continued working on the Teotihuacan Mapping Project as a faculty associate, and trained graduate students from various universities in field methods and techniques. From 1973-78 she also did contract archaeology for the California Department of Transportation.
Darlena Blucher's interests were broad, both within her chosen field and outside. In particular she was fascinated by religions, astronomy, modern physics and cosmology, and the history of the Bible. She is survived by her father, Newell S Bugbee, three sisters and one brother. Memorial contributions may be made in her name to the Reading Scholarship Foundation, Inc, PO Box 492, Reading, MS 01867. (George L Cowgill)

DELMA LETTICIA GALINDO, born in 1952, died on October 17, 1998. A sociolinguist, Galindo was Associate Professor of Languages and Literatures at Arizona State U, and Associate Research Professor at ASU's Hispanic Research Center. She received her PhD in 1987 from the U of Texas at Austin, specializing in Foreign Language Education and Applied Linguistics. She was active in many professional organizations, including the American Association for Applied Linguistics, Linguistic Society of America, Mujeres Activas en Letras y Cambio Social, and the National Association for Chicana and Chicano Studies.
A native of west Texas, Galindo cherished the language and culture of Mexican Americans, whose cause she championed throughout her career. In this regard she completed several pioneering studies pertaining to education and public policies. Her 1987 dissertation studied the English of Chicanos in East Austin, TX, and their linguistic variation and versatility between Spanish, English and alternative modes of code switching. Prior to that time she completed an exceptional MA thesis on the usage of Calo among women, including women who had served time in prison.
Galindo's ability to conduct ground breaking research of exceptional quality grew substantially from her knowledge of Chicano/a culture, along with her capacity for hard work and an enviable sense of the importance of empirical evidence in support of her findings. Throughout all phases of her research, Galindo's unwavering desire to help others was only exceeded by her steadfast respect for her consultants; this appreciation for the well-being of her consultants and students will remain a hallmark of Galindo's distinguished scholarship and contributions to the academy and the Mexican American communities that she fondly called "home."
As a single mother who attended graduate school while raising a wonderful son, Galindo did far more than empathize with her fellow Mexican-Americans to whom she devoted her life. Her career offers some of the most informed, insightful and profound studies of Chicano/a culture, language and education to be found anywhere. Her anticipated edition, co-edited with Maria Dolores Gonzales, titled Chicanas and Language: Reconstruction, Reflection, and Innovation (U Arizona Press), will offer broader exposure to the work of other Latina scholars, many of whom were among the friends and colleagues who shared Galindo's dream of advanced opportunities for Mexican Americans, African Americans and members of other socially disenfranchised groups.
Delma Letticia Galindo is survived by her son George. (John Baugh)

CLARA HALL MILLON, 85, died in Rochester, NY on September 9, 1997, of a heart attack and acute respiratory failure, brought on by emphysema. Millon was born Kaela Sternin on January 22, 1912, in Dvinsk, Latvia, then part of Czarist Russia. When she was two she was taken to New York, the family name was changed to Stern and she became Clara. She attended Hunter College (BA, 1932). She became politically active, participating in protests against economic, political and social injustices. Millon married Rob Hall and gave birth to son, Peter. They lived in Birmingham 1934-44. During World War II she worked on a radio assembly line, where she became a master in the art of soldering. During and after the war she worked as an office manager for several labor unions and later as a legal secretary for major civil liberties organizations and labor law firms. The family moved to Washington after the war. There deep discord led to divorce, after which Millon moved to New York and then to Berkeley, CA.
In 1957, pursuing a long-held interest in societies with cultural traditions different from mainstream America and from each other, Millon began graduate studies in anthropology at the U of California. In 1959 she participated in fieldwork in and around the ancient city of Teotihuacan, Mexico. This stimulated an interest in Teotihuacan's murals, which became the subject of her PhD dissertation (1962). She married Rene Millon in 1961, shortly before they moved to Rochester, NY, where she taught part-time in the U of Rochester anthropology department in the 1960s and early 1970s. Despite and partly because of her lack of formal training in art history, she made fundamental contributions to the understanding of Teotihuacan's mural tradition, the most significant being her demonstration that the subject of some of its most pervasive and persisting iconography was political and military, rather than religious, as most had assumed. She was the first to identify personal names of Teotihuacan individuals. Especially influential publications include "Painting, Writing and Polity in Teotihuacan, Mexico" (American Antiquity 38, 1973), and "A Reexamination of the Teotihuacan Tassel Headdress Insignia" (Feathered Serpents and Flowering Trees, K Berrin, ed, 1988). In addition to her manifold contributions to the study of art and social, political and religious life in Teotihuacan, Millon played an important catalytic role in guiding many of the most important present-day contributors to Teotihuacan studies. This continued long after 1978, when breathing problems prevented her from returning to Teotihuacan because of its altitude. When asked by authors and editors for comments on manuscripts, she freely contributed her knowledge, exhaustive attention to detail, remarkable insights and extraordinary analytic skills. Her influence endures.
Millon was honest and straightforward, without pretensions, with a wonderful sense of humor and sense of outrage at social injustice, an indomitable spirit and brilliantly incisive mind. She was proud of her Jewish heritage, which she celebrated mainly in secular ways. She is survived by husband, Rene, son, Peter, two grandchildren, a greatgranddaughter, three stepchildren and 6 stepgrandcholdren. (George L Cowgill)

GEORGE EATON SIMPSON, 94, Professor Emeritus of Sociology-Anthropology at Oberlin, died on December 13, 1998 in Columbus, OH at the Friendship Village Retirement Community. Born in Knoxville, IA, on October 4, 1904, he graduated from Coe College in 1926. He continued his studies at the U of Missouri, receiving the MA in 1927. He completed his PhD at the U of Pennsylvania in 1934. Simpson taught at Temple (1928-39) and Penn State (1939-47) before joining the Oberlin faculty as Professor and Chairman of the Department of Sociology-Anthropology in 1947. He retired in 1971.
A very productive scholar, Simpson wrote or edited 9 books and authored many articles. He was the recipient of numerous honors, including the Wellcome Medal for Anthropological Research, awarded by the RAI (1957). His fieldwork centered on religion, particularly in the Caribbean, and the historical connections between religions in the African Diaspora. He conducted fieldwork in Haiti, Trinidad, Jamaica, St Lucia and Nigeria. Based on 40 years of investigation, his Black Religions in the New World (1978) described the religious traditions suffusing black cultural life and history from the onset of the slave trade until the 20th century. A book of very wide scope, it has become a standard reference for scholars in this research area. Sharing many interests with Melville J Herskovits, Simpson held an SSRC postdoctoral fellowship in 1936 that brought the two together in a working relationship. In 1973, Simpson published Melville Herskovits. He also wrote Yoruba Religion and Medicine (1980), and, with his distinguished Oberlin colleague, J Milton Yinger, Racial and Cultural Minorities: An Analysis of Prejudice and Discrimination (1985, 5th edition). The latter work, first appearing in 1953, quickly became the definitive textbook on its subject. Simpson was a strong advocate of empirical anthropology and traditional ethnography. He believed that anthropology can achieve a profound understanding of culturally diverse worlds, if only its practitioners have the wit, determination and humility to engage them.
Simpson had a wonderful store of anecdotes and personal narratives, including a harrowing account of the anthropologist's nightmare--an appendicitis attack in a remote locale. His occurred in the mid-1930s in Haiti, where the only help available was a local man who had served as a medical orderly in a US Marine Corps facility. He performed a successful appendectomy on Simpson, leaving him with nothing more serious than the makings of a gripping tale.
As a memorable teacher at Oberlin, Simpson enjoyed the great satisfaction of inspiring many young people to pursue advanced study. Among his former students going on to notable careers in anthropology are Johnnetta Cole, Richard Ford, Joel Sherzer and Niara Sudarkasa.
Beyond his professional achievements, George Simpson will always be remembered by his many friends and colleagues as a true gentleman--a man of dignity, warmth, amiability and unfailing kindness. He was predeceased by his wife, Eleanor, and is survived by their 4 children, John, Louise, Nancy and Curt. (Jack Glazier)


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