WESLEY L BLISS, 91, retired professor of anthropology, died quietly in his sleep at his home in Ojai, CA, on August 13, 1996. Bliss was born on a farm near Greeley, CO, and earned his BA in geology at the U of Northern Colorado in that city. Early work in paleontology in California, Mexico and China led to an interest in the human past.
Work at Kuaua in the Southwest, when a graduate student at the U of New Mexico, provided an opportunity to adapt paleontological methods of jacketing fossils to the removal of kiva murals for laboratory processing and thesis material for an MA in anthropology (1936). Bliss later engaged in archaeology in Pennsylvania, helping locate and excavate the ruins of Forts Pitt and Duquesne. After service as a cryptoanalyst in the nation's capital during World War II, he joined the Smithsonian's research out of Lincoln, NE, in the northern Great Plains. He was granted his doctorate in anthropology by the U of Arizona (1952) with a dissertation on archaeological field methods.
Bliss participated in the pioneering pipeline archaeology projects in the Southwest in the 1950s, including the El Paso, Four Corners and Transwestern pipelines. He taught at California State U, Northridge, leading field trips to the Southwest for several summers, and retired in 1972.
Bliss's publications include papers on kiva murals, plains archaeology, pipeline archaeology, the introduction of the wagon among the Papago (Tohono O'odam), and a monograph on the historic forts excavated at Pittsburgh. (David M Brugge, with information from Shirley Bliss)

MADELINE D KNEBERG LEWIS, 93, died of heart failure on July 4, 1996, in Winter Haven, FL. Madeline Kneberg and Thomas M N Lewis were a team that are synonymous with Tennessee archaeology.
Kneberg was born in Moline, IL. An artist and aspiring singer, she lived in Italy for 4 years to explore art and music. Returning to Chicago in 1928, she enrolled in the school of nursing at Presbyterian Hospital. After graduation, continuing in sociology and minoring in psychology, she met Fay-Cooper Cole, who encouraged her to go into physical anthropology, ultimately taking her from a planned career in medicine to anthropology. Under Cole, Kneberg completed all but her dissertation.
With the creation of the Tennessee Valley Authority (1933) began one of the largest archaeological projects to take place in this country. Lewis was hired to head the Tennessee operations, and in 1938 he hired Kneberg to supervise the archaeology lab at the U of Tennessee. Kneberg and Lewis developed and published a detailed laboratory procedures manual that included an attribute-based classification system, techniques for pottery reconstruction and a system for collections management. As a physical anthropologist, Kneberg examined and classified over 2000 skeletal remains, until the WPA was dissolved in 1942.
A draft version of the excavations in the Chickamauga Reservoir was completed in the early 1940s, but funds were not available to publish the entire report. Consequently Kneberg and Lewis chose to publish one site, Hiwassee Island. A landmark archaeological report, Hiwassee Island: An Archaeological Account of Four Tennessee Indian Peoples (1946) contained the high scholarship of both authors but also contained reconstructions of prehistoric life drawn by Kneberg.
In 1940 Kneberg began teaching courses in anthropology in the Division of Anthropology, which became a full-fledged department in 1947. In 1950, she became the first female full professor outside the College of Home Economics at the U of Tennessee. The concern by Kneberg and Lewis for educating the layperson about archaeology is best manifest in the creation of the Tennessee Archaeological Society (1944). In the 1950s, she was especially active in the planning and construction of the Oconoluftee Indian Village in Cherokee, NC. The culmination of Kneberg and Lewis's efforts to interpret the Indian history of Tennessee came in 1958 with the publication of Tribes That Slumber: Indian Times in the Tennessee Region. Profusely illustrated with Kneberg's drawings, the book has been among the 10 best sellers for the U of Tennessee Press. Another of their joint efforts was to create the Frank H McClung Museum on the U of Tennessee campus. (1961).
In 1961 at age 65, Lewis decided to retire, and after what Kneberg called the longest courtship on record, they married and retired to Winter Haven, FL. Their final contribution to Tennessee archaeology, published as Lewis and Lewis, was Eva: An Archaic Site (1961).
In 1995 at the 52nd annual meeting of the Southeastern Archaeological Conference, Kneberg was appropriately honored with the Distinguished Service Award. (Jefferson Chapman; with appreciation for the recent biographical work by Hester Davis, Rochelle Marrinan, Lynette Nyman, Lynne Sullivan and Nancy White).

CHIA-LING KUO, 68, died September 20, 1996, in Silver Spring, MD, of complications from rheumatoid arthritis.
Kuo was born in Shanghai in 1928. Her father, Kuo Sung-nian, was Secretary of the Presidency under Sun Yat Sen, and led a party which broke off from the Kuomintang. He sent his daughter to the US in 1945. She entered Cornell, after being educated entirely by tutors, and graduated with a BA. She entered the Columbia U Anthropology Department in 1949. Attempting to counter the cultural miscommunication she had to struggle with at that time, she sought out anthropologists knowledgeable about China, among them Morton Fried. Fried, however, discouraged her from seeking a PhD. Kuo conducted fieldwork in Chinatown, New York, and entered New York U, where Owen Lynch directed her work and the writing of her field materials with a Weberian theoretical framework. Her dissertation, Social and Political Change in New York's Chinatown: The Role of Voluntary Associations (published in 1977), is recognized as a pioneering work in Chinese American studies and is cited by scholars in all disciplines. An important article, "The Chinese on Long Island," concerned with theories of assimilation, appeared in Phylon (1970). Kuo did not hold a teaching position, but was affiliated with the Asian American Studies Program at Hunter College. Her research on Chinatown was supported by grants from NIMH.
Kuo's marriage to Harvey Baumgartner ended in early divorce. Much later she married historian Richard Nachtscheim. She had a large network of anthropologist friends. Her optimism and doubly acute biocultural intelligence gave her a strong presence in the New York scene. After her husband's death in 1994, Kuo was cared for in a nursing home. She made it her community, hailing an African attendant as "King," and being addressed in return as "Queen." Kuo was uniquely able to enjoy the multiracial caretakers because of her resentment against the racial discrimination she had felt keenly throughout her professional career: her long periods of apparent sleep, she explained to her private nurse, were not slept, but the observance of traditional mourning for her husband.
Kuo is survived by a nephew and two nieces. (Virginia Heyer Young)

CHELSEA MILLER GOIN, 46, graduate student in anthropology at the U of Nevada, Reno, died in an automobile accident near Holbrook, AZ, on June 19, 1996. Born May 2, 1950, in Denver, CO, Goin had lived in Reno for the past 12 years. Studying for her doctorate in cultural anthropology, she had recently completed field research in New Mexico and Mexico. Goin received an MA in textiles at California College of Arts and Crafts in Oakland, and a BA from the U of Iowa, Iowa City. She is survived by her husband, Peter Goin, and daughters Kari Elena and Dana Evelyn.

BARRY LAFFAN, 59, died in Jacksonville, FL, on August 5, 1996, during surgical complications following a long illness. An outgoing and lovable yet modest and private man, Laffan's many and varied accomplishments as an applied anthropologist were not fully known by even some of his closest colleagues. Born June 16, 1937, in New York City, Laffan had enjoyed many careers before becoming an anthropologist, including a lifelong interest in herpetology. This interest led to his BA in zoology (Colorado, 1960) and an MA in education from Hofstra (1963).
Laffan grew restless as a teacher and traveled extensively throughout the world. As a result, he developed an interest in anthropology, eventually returning to coursework at Columbia in anthropology (PhD, 1976). He took a modest pride in being one of the last students with Margaret Mead on his graduate committee. Despite earlier research experience in Japan, his doctoral dissertation was a study of a 1960s New England commune. Long delayed, final publication of Laffan's innovative research, Communal Organization and Social Transition, is scheduled for posthumous completion (Peter Long Publishing). Laffan enjoyed a long tenure on the faculty of Marlboro College in Vermont before moving to Florida in 1987. Soon after, he became a much-valued adjunct faculty member of Florida State U's Department of Anthropology. He also continued to work as a private consultant. With pithy candor, Laffan described some of the perils and pitfalls of the consultant's life in "Entrepreneurial Anthropology: A Case Study in the Search for Professional Independence" (High Plains Applied Anthropologist, 9-10). In his consulting work, Laffan concentrated on rural development and environmental issues, approached from a general systems perspective and remaining true to the best traditions of empirical anthropological fieldwork. He founded the "ecotourism" movement in North Florida, launching Gulf Coast Excursions, Inc, as the prototype. He was founder and president of the Association for the Apalachee Culture and Coastal Wilderness Area, a not-for-profit organization supporting responsible regional environmental and economic development, which is establishing a unique trail linking selected archaeological and historical sites of the area by waterways and land. Laffan was a consummate "networker," dramatically attested by the diverse crowd of local and state officials, business leaders, academicians and just plain folks who gathered at his house on the Ochlockonee River for a touching interfaith memorial service. One of those who spoke, naturalist/author Jack Rudloe, paid tribute to Laffan as a practical-anthropologist/conservationist when he spoke of his unwavering commitment to the practical as well as aesthetic value of preserving the environment and culture of the Florida Panhandle coast. It is tragic that Laffan was not able to complete all the tasks he set for himself to bring to policy makers the message of culturally and environmentally sensitive development. Barry Laffan is survived by his wife Joanna Mauer, daughter Brook Laffan-Ciraldo, granddaughter Jacqueline Claire Ciraldo and niece Kim Romano. Joanna is working with Jerry Levy to prepare for publication Laffan's notes on his experience as a patient and object of medical ministrations during his final illness. (Susan Pflanz-Cook and J Anthony Paredes)

JEROME A VOSS, 47, of the Michigan State U Department of Anthropology, died at his home on April 6, 1996, after a three-year war against cancer. Voss was a man with an extraordinary capacity for making and sustaining friendships. The wide range of his friends reflected the broad scope of his interests. A man with a rigorous and demanding intellect, Voss was appalled by intellectual snobbery and pretension. Voss was associated with Michigan State U since he and his high school sweetheart, Patty, came to East Lansing as freshmen in 1966. He received his BA in anthropology with highest honors (1970), was elected to Phi Beta Kappa and received the Michigan State U Board of Trustees Award for graduating second in his class. He and his wife were married soon after their graduation from college. Voss went on to earn his MA and PhD in anthropology from U Michigan. Voss returned to Michigan State as a member of the faculty from 1977 until 1981. He taught in the Department of Sociology and Anthropology at U Southern Mississippi (1981-1986), where he served as Anthropology Program Coordinator, returning to Michigan State in 1986. Voss's publications in archaeology reflect his incorporation of theoretical perspectives from a variety of social sciences into his analyses. His interest in Paleo-Indian adaptations materialized in a spatial analysis of the Barnes site in Michigan. For his doctoral dissertation, Voss brought his analytic skills to bear on the Neolithic TRB culture of northwestern Europe, applying rigorous quantitative approaches to issues of social organization and change. The incorporation of ethnographic and ethnohistoric data led Voss to an investigation of historic Choctaw adaptations and, together with his TRB ceramic work, stimulated an interest in the archaeological analysis of style. Drawing on insights from social psychology, he recently coauthored a book chapter, "Style and the Self," a bold attempt to synthesize various facets of stylistic theory as they relate to information in donor-recipient interactions. Voss's last research project was an ethnohistorical investigation of utopian communities in Michigan. Although he was an excellent researcher, Voss was, above all, a teacher. He loved being in the classroom and relished teaching. For him, the 4-field approach was not a debate; it was a fact. His passion for his field was contagious, and he inspired students ranging from entering freshmen to advanced graduate students. The anthropology graduate students selected Voss for the department's 1996 Outstanding Teacher Award. Voss's deep commitment to fostering high quality education at Michigan State led him to dedicate much time to serving on key curriculum committees on the departmental, college and university levels, and he played a major role guiding Michigan State through a difficult period of transition to a semester system. Voss brought a refreshing voice of reason to academic debate. Jerry Voss was a scholar with a passion for teaching. He was a man of integrity, modesty, unfailing good humor and extraordinary courage. Voss is survived by his wife, son Geoffrey, daughter Anna and grandson Alexander. (William Lovis and Fredric Roberts)

WALDO R WEDEL, 88, curator emeritus of North American archaeology at the Smithsonian Institution, died August 27, 1996, in Boulder, CO. Wedel received a BA from U Arizona (1930), after first attending Bethel College in Newton, KS, and an MA from Nebraska (1931). In 1936, he was the first anthropologist to receive a PhD at U California with a dissertation that focused on archaeology, entitled "Some Historical and Ethnic Aspects of Nebraska Archeology." During his 50-year career, Wedel conducted archaeology projects in most of the Plains states, including his native Kansas; a major theme of that study was the influence of the environment on human life, including its effect on the movement of people in and out of the region. He also carried out excavations in California, Mexico, Virginia and Maryland, and established and directed the Missouri Basin Project of the Bureau of American Ethnology River Basin Survey (1946-50). In 1936, Wedel was appointed assistant curator in the US National Museum Division of Archaeology and ultimately became curator of archaeology (1950) and head curator of the Department of Anthropology (1962). In 1964-65, he was acting head of the newly organized Office of Anthropology. He retired in 1977 as senior archaeologist and was appointed curator emeritus. Wedel continued to conduct an active research career maintaining an office at the Smithsonian for many years until moving to Boulder. Wedel served as secretary of the Society for American Archaeology in 1940 and became its president (1948-49 and again 1951-52). He was twice president of the Anthropological Society of Washington (1951-52 and 1968) and chairman of the 20th Plains Conference at Lincoln (1962). In 1965 he was elected to the National Academy of Sciences. In 1971 Wedel received a Distinguished Alumnus Award from Bethel College and honorary doctorates from U Nebraska and Kansas State U. The Society for American Archaeology awarded him its Distinguished Service Award in 1986. Wedel generated over 130 publications and will be fondly and respectfully remembered as a scholar who made important contributions to Plains archaeology and as a major influence to many students of archaeology to whom he generously gave his time and shared ideas. His wife, Mildred, who died in 1995, was herself a distinguished scholar of Plains archaeology and ethnohistory. He and Mildred had been married for 56 years. Wedel is survived by his daughter, Linda Greene, and two sons, Waldo and Frank. (Dennis Stanford)

JAMES LEWTON BRAIN, 73, died of a heart attack December 2, 1996, in Poughkeepsie, NY. Born in Essex, England, September 12, 1923, he worked as a farm boy, then at age 18 joined the British Army in 1942 and was commissioned after the war. From 1951 until 1963, Brain served in the British Colonial Service in Tanganyika and Uganda as Agricultural Extension Officer, Community Development Officer and Government Instructor in Lwoo and Swahili. As the child of a socialist family--egalitarian to the bone--and subordinate to the Oxbridge types who manned the Colonial Service, Brain got to know and appreciate as friends many Africans, their cultures and their languages. Indeed, his ease with the local people surprised George Peter Murdock in East Africa on a quick research trip, who told him he had held to the belief that colonial administrators did not speak the local language and were disliked by the local people. Brain's competence in Swahili--his Basic Structure of Swahili (1965) remains a classic text--brought him to Syracuse U, where he enthusiastically trained many of the early Peace Corps volunteers to Tanzania. Despite no BA degree, he was accepted by the Senate of U of London for graduate study on the basis of career achievements, especially in the field of African languages. In 1963, he did a Post Graduate Diploma in Social Studies in Tropical Territories at LSE with Lucy Mair, then returned to Syracuse U to do a PhD in anthropology with Aidan Southall. He joined the faculty at State U of New York at New Paltz in 1967, retiring as Emeritus Professor 20 years later. He was also Visiting Professor at Vassar College (1976-82). Brain's Peace Corps work remained important to him, for his anthropology and for his links to the volunteers he trained. 
Despite his late start as an academic, Brain exhibited imaginative boldness. He loved to engage in academic debate and often proffered innovative and controversial views in his publications, which included two books and 45 papers. Of greatest significance, and those of which he was most proud, are those that fall into 4 categories: (1) language and patterns of change; (2) witchcraft ("Witchcraft and Development," African Affairs: Journal of the Royal Africa Society, v 82, 1983; and "An Anthropological Perspective on the Witchcraze," in Brink, Coudert, and Horowitz, eds, The Politics of Gender in Early Modern Europe, 1989); (3) gender ("Less Than Second-Class: Women on Tanzanian Settlement Schemes," In Hafkin and Bay, eds, Women in Africa: Studies in Social and Economic Change, 1976); and (4) psychoanalytic reconsideration of initiation rites ("Sex, Incest, and Death: Initiation Rites Reconsidered" Current Anthropology 18, 1977; and The Last Taboo: Sex and the Fear of Death, 1979). In recent years he wrote novels and memoirs based on his years in East Africa.
Brain was a superb teacher and powerful intellect, who continued to teach after retirement and recently returned to teaching Swahili through popular demand. He is survived by his wife Karen Robertson, two sons and two granddaughters. (Deborah Pellow) 

EARL WENDEL COUNT, 97, Professor Emeritus, Hamilton College, Purdue U, died November 22, 1996, in Walnut Creek, CA. Born October 22, 1899, in Irvington-on-Hudson, NY, to missionary parents, his early schooling was in Bulgaria and Switzerland, where he gained fluent acquaintance with Slavic, Germanic and Romance languages. Returning to the US at the outbreak of the Great War he began his "reamericanization," eventually pursuing it as farm hand, merchant seaman, cross-country motorcyclist and Ranger-Naturalist in several western National Parks. 
After graduating Phi Beta Kappa from Williams College Count did graduate studies in biology at Northwestern U while earning a DB degree from Garrett Theological Seminary. A chance encounter with Kroeber's Anthropology in the library led him to graduate studies under Kroeber at Berkeley, where he insisted on training in both the biological and cultural domains of anthropology. His fieldwork included ethnography of the Modoc of Oregon and the Yurok of California. His PhD dissertation (1935), profiting from his translations of Bulgarian scholars, documented the diffusion of the "Earth Diver" motif from the Levant across trans-Himalayan Asia and into Amerindian mythologies. 
During World War II Count taught human anatomy at New York Medical College. After a year as a Research Associate with the Wenner-Gren Foundation he founded the Anthropology Department at Hamilton College (1946), where he taught physical anthropology, ethnology, linguistics, mythology and sociology until his retirement (1968). The annual reading of his beloved "4000 Years of Christmas" became a revered tradition among his students. 
A "scientist-in-orders," Count was ordained a Methodist Episcopal minister in 1928 and became a Protestant Episcopal priest in 1934, thus participating in both the great traditions of Western Civilization, the humanistic and the scientific. His scientific work looked to a future, unified Ganzheitsanthropologie, a "man-science" that would forswear the false dichotomy between the biological and cultural. This Is Race documented the pre-evolutionary notions of human variation that still dominate popular thinking. Brain and Body Weight in Man foreshadowed contemporary methods of comparative life-history analysis in evolutionary biology. Dynamic Anthropometry helped move physical anthropology away from static descriptions of variation to processual analysis of growth, movement and function. Being and Becoming Human: Essays on the Biogram brought together his major work on the search for the evolutionary life-mode of the vertebrata, including humans. How was it that a particular group of primates evolved brains of sufficient complexity that "the representation of reality [symbolopoea] not only could occur, but apparently was by nature of the case inevitable"? Count sought the answer not in 19th-century selectionism, but rather in the theoretical works of Shroedinger, Wiener, Ashby, von Foerster and von Bertalanffy. Organisms engage on a quest for information, and brains evolve to serve that quest. Until his death Count continued pursuing understanding of the "mind-brain" problem (unpublished), in which he believed lay the key to a unified anthropology for the 21st century. (Donald Stone Sade) 

ROBERT A MANNERS, 83, died on July 12, 1996 at his home in Newton, MA, after a prolonged battle with cancer. 
Manners was born and reared in New York City. He undertook graduate studies in anthropology at Columbia U after serving in the Army during World War II and received his doctorate from that institution in 1950. He taught for a time at the U of Rochester and in 1952 joined the faculty at Brandeis U, where he was to remain for the next 44 years, 27 as a faculty member and 17 as an emeritus. Even after retiring in 1979, he continued to come to his office on campus almost every day and remained active in departmental and university affairs.
Manners published, singly or in collaboration, 9 volumes and an extensive list of essays in both professional and opinion journals. His books range in content from analyses of his ethnographic field researches to a festschrift compiled to honor his teacher and intellectual mentor, Julian Steward, to two collaborative volumes dealing with issues in anthropological theory.
Manners did brief periods of field research among the Walapai and Havasupi Indians of Arizona, as well as on several of the Carribean Islands. He also did more extended periods of field research in rural Puerto Rico (1947-49) and later among the Kipsigis of Kenya (1957-58). The Puerto Rican materials were incorporated into The People of Puerto Rico (1956), on which he collaborated (along with Eric Wolf, Sidney Mintz, Elena Padilla and Raymond Scheele) with Julian Steward. For its time The People of Puerto Rico was a breakthrough volume in that it was one of the earliest attempts to present a portrait of a modern, albeit small, complex society, using ethnographic field research. Likewise, the Kipsigis materials were to become part of Contemporary Change in Traditional Societies, Vol 1, edited by Julian Steward (1967). A prominent theme running through all of Manners's ethnographic writings is the notion, now a commonplace in anthropological analyses, that communities and societies are not self-contained isolated but ought to be seen in their regional, national and international context. This point was driven home in an essay he wrote on the significance of remittances in understanding the viability of Caribbean economies (1965, "Remittances and the Unit of Analysis in Anthropological Research," Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 21:179-195).
Although Manners thought every word he put to paper resonated with significance, he was especially fond of those pieces in which he critically dissected viewpoints with which he disagreed. Despite his outwardly irenic mien, Manners was at bottom a polemicist: he firmly believed that the discipline advances by the give and take of controversy, and he loved to argue. To cite an example of his penchant for controversy, in 1962 he wrote Pluralism and the American Indian" (American Indigena 22:1), in which he dealt with attempts to maintain and revive traditional Indian cultures in the modern world. This essay sparked a lively exchange between himself and John Collier, who had been head of the Bureau of Indian Affairs under Franklin Roosevelt. It was just the sort of debate Manners relished: Collier the romantic and Manners the pragmatic historical materialist, or at least that is how he viewed their respective positions. This exchange is as relevant today as when it first took place, perhaps even more so. E B Tylor, in the final pages of his classic Primitive Culture, refers to anthropology as a "reformer's science." Manners certainly thought of the field in that way, although he most likely would have construed this characterization in more political terms than Tylor had in mind.
Manners served as editor-in-chief of the American Anthropologist (1973-75). Many who knew him often remarked that he may have missed his calling. He had superb editorial talents: enormous patience, an unwavering attention to detail, a discriminating sense of the organization and intellectual flow of a discussion as well as a heightened sense of style--always a strong sense of style. Having come to anthropology from studies in English literature, he always found the use of language important: almost as critical as what you said was how you said it. It is no wonder, then, that students and colleagues often brought their manuscripts to him for his keen critical appraisal. He was truly the Maxwell Perkins of the Brandeis anthropology department.
Manners is survived by his wife Jean, 4 children (Karen, John, Steven and Katherine) and 9 grandchildren. (David Kaplan)

GERTRUDE WOODRUFF MARLOWE, 66, Associate Professor of Anthropology emerita, who retired from Howard U in 1992 after 22 years, died of breast cancer on October 26, 1996, in Washington, DC. Marlowe devoted her life to "building bridges between diverse human beings and diverse human groups. She lived a life that was continuously devoted to service and seeking light in a world often shrouded in darkness." A native of Philadelphia and resident of Silver Spring, MD, Marlowe received her BA in Anthropology from Cornell U (1952) and PhD and MPH from Harvard (1959). She received a Russell Sage Foundation fellowship for public health studies, and was a Woodrow Wilson and Ford Foundation Fellow.
Marlowe began her career with an ethnographic study of a Scheduled Caste hutment area in Bangalore, India (1955-57). She made a comparison of an urban population and two village neighborhoods from which many of the urbanites had come, focusing on the demographic, economic and social structural variables. In 1959 she conducted a study of a Sikh village in the Punjab, an index community for the India-Harvard-Ludhiana Population Study. Marlowe developed an easily applied, objective method for determining economic status, did a genealogical analysis and migration impact report.
After returning from India, Marlowe became Research Director for the Community Nursing Services in Philadelphia and conducted several studies for the Philadelphia Health Department to enhance community participation in environmental health projects. This included an extended study (1962-64) to develop a new Community Nursing Service. Marlowe then spent 3 years in Thailand as a U of Pennsylvania Research Fellow, conducting ethnographic research on sociomedical behavior (1965-68).
Marlowe enjoyed a long-term association with the American Friends Service Committee, and worked as a consultant to the extensive social science evaluation effort of an urban community development project in Baroda (1964-68, 1977-78).
In the 1980s Marlowe was the principal investigator of two training grant contracts for the National Park Service. The first was a project to document, search and prepare an annotated bibliography on the public career of Maggie Lena Walker (1867-1934), a black business woman in Richmond, VA. The second was to prepare Walker's comprehensive biography.
Most recently, Marlowe was Associate Ethnographer/Evaluator to the Edward C Mazique Parent Child Center, Washington, DC, where she worked on the process and formative evaluations of two federally funded projects: Comprehensive Child Development Program initiative (1990-95) and Early Head Start Program (1995-96). 
Marlowe was a consummate teacher, taking personal interest in her students and devoting herself to cultivating and honing their skills. When faced with crises, she always had words of encouragement and constructive advice. She was a master stateswoman, giving freely and unstintingly of herself, frequently called on to put out fires and settle internal problems. Her integrity, fairness, loyalty and gentleness of heart were respected and admired by all. But most of all Marlowe was loved for her extraordinary sense of humor and wit. She is survived by her husband, David, daughter Amanda Marlowe SubbaRao and son Andrew W Marlowe and a grandson. (Arvilla Payne-Jackson, with information from David Marlowe) 

ALFONSO ORTIZ, 57, professor of anthropology at U New Mexico, died January 28, 1997, at his home in Santa Fe, NM. 
Born at San Juan Pueblo, NM, April 30, 1939, Ortiz was raised at the pueblo and graduated from high school in nearby Espanola. A National Merit Scholarship enabled him to complete a sociology BA at UNM (1961). He attended Arizona State U for a year, then earned his MA (1963) and PhD (1967) in anthropology at U Chicago. Ortiz taught at Pitzer College (1966-67) and Princeton U (1967-74) before returning to UNM as a full professor (1974). 
Best known in anthropology for The Tewa World: Space, Time, Being, and Becoming in a Pueblo Society (1969) and his editing of New Perspectives on the Pueblos (1972) and the two Southwest volumes (9, 10) of the Handbook of North American Indians (1979, 1983), Ortiz was the author/editor of books and articles on American Indian education, federal policy, history, oral narratives, religion and worldview. He advised committees on minority concerns for the Social Science Research Council, Ford Foundation and AAA, and served as a board member for Cultural Survival, Inc, Peabody Museum, Newberry Library and National Museum of the American Indian. Active in contemporary American Indian affairs throughout his life, Ortiz rendered significant service on the National Advisory Council of the National Indian Youth Council and Association on American Indian Affairs, of which he was president (1973-88). He received numerous awards for his work, notably a John Simon Guggenheim fellowship (1975-76), fellowship at Stanford U's Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences (1977-78), and the prestigious MacArthur Foundation "genius" grant (1982-87). 
Alfonso Ortiz's presence at UNM was pervasive. Affable and articulate, armed with an unfailing sense of humor, he was a dedicated--and popular--teacher. He made friends easily, and all of his colleagues, at UNM as elsewhere, suspect that they will not see his likes again. He is survived by daughters Elena and Juliana, and son Nico. In accordance with his wishes, Alfonso Ortiz's body was cremated and distributed on one of the Sacred Mountains near his native Pueblo of San Juan. The Department of Anthropology, U New Mexico has set up a special fund in his honor to help Native American students studying anthropology. Donations may be sent to UNM Foundation/Alfonso Ortiz Memorial Fund, U of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM 87131. (Marta Weigle and Keith Basso) 

LEE ALLEN PARSONS, 64, died in Fort Lauderdale, FL, on October 2, 1996. An outstanding field archaeologist, student of Pre-Columbian and tribal art and museum curator, Parsons made the civilizations of ancient Mesoamerica his specialty, with emphasis on the Pacific Coast and highlands of Guatemala. His monographs on the enigmatic Cotzumalhuapan culture and on the Preclassic sculpture of Kaminaljuyu remain the definitive works on those civilizations bordering on, and leading up to, the Classic Maya civilization. 
Born in Wausau, WI, in 1932, Parsons entered Beloit College and received his BA degree in anthropology (1954), In 1953, while a Beloit student, Parsons joined the Peabody Museum (Harvard)-Beloit Expedition to Quemado, NM, directed by J O Brew and William Godfrey; Godfrey turned out to be a matchmaker, as it was while digging a Basketmaker III-Pueblo I pithouse that Parsons met another Beloit student who was to become his wife and mother of his two daughters. After graduation, Parsons went on for graduate work in anthropology at Harvard, writing his doctoral dissertation under Gordon Willey's supervision on the "Middle American Co-Tradition"; PhD (1964). 
Rather than joining a university faculty for a career in teaching, Parsons decided early on to spend his life in museum work--curating collections, mounting exhibitions, preparing catalogues and undertaking museum-sponsored fieldwork. Following a brief stint as Teaching Fellow at Beloit, he took a position as Associate Curator of Archaeology at the Milwaukee Public Museum; the museum's then director, Stephen F de Borhegyi, was deeply interested in the prehistory of Guatemala's Pacific piedmont, and under the sponsorship of the National Geographic Society and National Science Foundation, Parsons began an intensive program of excavations at Bilbao, one of the most important Cotzumalhuapan sites, and at the Late Preclassic site of Monte Alto. His two-volume final report on Bilbao remains the key publication in the field, although Parsons was always ready to admit that much remains to be learned about this puzzling, Mexican-influenced culture. 
With the promise of a position as assistant director, Parsons moved to Harvard's Peabody Museum in 1968. Due to lack of funds, this position failed to materialize, and he spent two personally distressing years there as Curator of Collections, leaving in 1970 by mutual consent. The following two years were considerably happier: he was back at the Milwaukee Public Museum, where he designed and mounted a permanent Pre-Columbian exhibit as a tribute to the memory of Borhegyi, who did in fact have a strong influence on his intellectual development. This was followed by 8 years at the St Louis Art Museum, working with the important art collection of Morton May, and preparing a large and well-illustrated catalogue raisonnee of its Pre-Columbian holdings. 
Parsons resigned this position to write his most important monograph, The Origins of Maya Art (1986), a study of the monumental sculpture of the great, Late Preclassic center of Kaminaljuyu on the outskirts of Guatemala City; although this huge metropolis has been largely destroyed, Parsons managed to make chronological sense of its many bas reliefs, and place them in context within the larger picture of Maya cultural origins. 
Parsons's last position was as Curator at the Jay Kislak Foundation in Miami (1987), where he had the opportunity to work with the Foundation's outstanding collection of Mesoamerican art, and important manuscripts and books relating to early exploration of the New World. From 1990 until his death, he was increasingly plagued by serious illness, which eventually forced him to resign from the foundation. 
Parsons made many lasting contributions to Mesoamerican research. His deep love for the art of other, non-Western peoples can be seen in the many catalogues and exhibitions he prepared, not only for Pre-Columbian art, but for cultural traditions as diverse as Africa, Oceania and the Northwest Coast. His life--both intellectual and personal--was often troubled and unhappy; but in the final years before his death, he had acquired an apartment overlooking the Pacific in Zihuatenejo, Mexico. There at last, surrounded by his beloved research library, Parsons found contentment and tranquility. He is survived by his former wife, Moreau Parsons, and two daughters Karla and Pamela Parsons. (Michael D Coe) 

LOUISE SCHAUBEL SPINDLER, 79, passed away at the Spindler home near Calistoga, CA, on January 23, 1997, after a long illness. She had just returned home from Stanford U, where she and her husband George Spindler were teaching a seminar in ethnographic methods for the study of cultural diversity in schools. Born March 4, 1917, in Oak Park, IL, Spindler was Stanford U's first PhD in anthropology (1956) and had been a lecturer there ever since. She taught both independently and with her husband. The Spindlers also taught, after George's retirement, at the U of Wisconsin-Madison, U of California-Santa Barbara and Davis, and at Sonoma State U. 
Spindler authored two books, Menominee Women and Culture Change (1962), and Culture Change and Urbanization (1977; 1984), as well as a number of articles on women and culture change, her special area. She started early her interest in the Menominee of Wisconsin. Her first publication was "Witchcraft in Menominee Acculturation," American Anthropologist (1956). In 1976 she wrote "The Menominee" in the Handbook of North American Indians (vol 15, The Northeast). She published major articles on the psychology of culture change: "Researching the Psychology of Culture Change" in Psychological Anthropology (T R Williams, ed, 1975) and "Researching the Psychology of Culture Change and Modernization" in The Making of Psychological Anthropology (G Spindler, ed, 1978). She also took an active role in the development and editing of the well-known series, Case Studies in Cultural Anthropology, first published in 1960 and now containing over 200 titles. 
Louise Spindler published articles and books in collaboration with George Spindler in other areas of anthropology and educational anthropology. Their collaborative fieldwork led them to the Menominee Indians of Wisconsin, the Blood Indians of Alberta, Canada and the Cree of Northern Quebec, to urbanizing villages in Germany, schools and communities in rural Wisconsin and schools in California. Spindler's latest project focussed on raising consciousness of personal culture among teachers and students in culturally diverse schools, in collaboration with their daughter, Sue Coleman and her husband Leslie Coleman. The project has resulted in a book edited by George and Louise Spindler, Pathways to Cultural Awareness: Cultural Therapy with Teachers and Students (1994). The project is continuing, and Spindler was active in it until the moment of her death. 
In 1987, the George and Louise Spindler Award for Outstanding Contributions to Anthropology and Education was established by the Council for Anthropology and Education, a Section of the AAA. The Spindlers were elected at Stockholm in 1994 to membership in the American Academy of Education. They were the first couple to be so honored.
Louise Spindler was known as a warm, caring and gracious woman by colleagues and students. She cared about anthropology and about people and their problems, perils and successes. All who were touched by her concern and her radiance will remember her for the rest of their lives. She is survived by husband George, daughter Sue Coleman and three granddaughters. (George Spindler) 

RAYMOND (RAY) C WHITE, 81, died on March 2, 1996, and his wife, Priscilla (Pat) Brown White, died two days later, both of pneumonia. Raymond White was born in Mystic, IA, but grew up primarily in Colorado and did his undergraduate work at Denver U. He served as a lieutenant in the US Army during World War II in Europe. Following World War II, he entered the U of California, Los Angeles, and received the PhD degree (1961). White carried out extensive and detailed field research among the Luisenos Amerinds. His book, Luiseno Social Organization (1963), is not only outstanding but the most detailed and penetrating study on the Luiseno. The Luisen have found it invaluable in upholding their rights and claims to traditional land in their native California. Due to suffering from diabetes which necessitated injections of insulin several times each day, and the necessity of assuming responsibility for family corporate business, he was unable to devote himself to anthropology after 1963. The Whites are survived by their son Charles, daughter Mareth Schwab and 4 grandchildren. (H Leon Abrams Jr) 

WILMA KAEMLEIN, 87, retired Curator of Collections at the Arizona State Museum, died January 3, 1997, in San Diego, CA. Kaemlein earned her RN and served in the US Army in the Pacific (1942-45), where she was awarded the Bronze Star. After the war she returned to the U of Michigan for an MA in anthropology (1949) and joined the Arizona State Museum staff in 1952, where she worked primarily with the collections. She spent many summers at the U of Arizona Point of Pines Field School as a laboratory supervisor. Kaemlein researched and published reports on many artifacts in the Museum's collections, These include articles in Kiva on prehistoric hunting nets of human hair, a twined bag from the Trigo Mountains and Quechan ceramic dolls and flutes. She also published an inventory of Southwestern American Indian materials in European museums based on work done during a 1965 sabbatical in Europe funded by NSF. Kaemlein served as Treasurer of the Arizona Archaeological and Historical Society, was a long-time Secretary of the Western Museums Conference, spent a year with the VISTA sickle cell anemia program in Oklahoma and chaired the Tucson Festival Society's San Xavier Fiesta for several years. She retired from the Museum in 1975.

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